Construction History Bibliography
Maintained by the Construction History Society


View Entry Author] Year of Publication Title Abstract Keywords
Heaton, M.J. 2016 Spolia Britannica: The Historical Use of Salvaged Building Materials in Britain. MPhil Thesis, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, University of Bath. The thesis demonstrates that architectural salvage was culturally endemic throughout Britain throughout the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period and was facilitated by sophisticated markets, distribution networks and customary non-economic ’linear exchange’. In addition to its iconographic and economic value, salvage was an important vector of technological and stylistic diffusion. As ’spolia’, salvaged architectural details were used by Catholic and other minority owners as expressions of cultural affinity and political legitimacy. spolia salvage catholic non-conformist britain
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’Building Palaeopathology: Practical Applications of Archaeological Building Analysis’, Structural Survey Vol 27 No. 2, pp119-137 This article demonstrates how the archaeological analysis of buildings can be used in the design and management of building refurbishment projects, using case studies from the author’s professional work in southwest Britain. It was awarded ’Outstanding Paper 2010’ by the publishers. It is available as a PDF from the publishers. bauforschung buildings-archaeology palaeopathology
Beard, G. 1981 Craftsmen and Interior Decoration in England 1660-1820 The most authoritative a definitive historical study of architectural decoration in England during the Georgian Period. 292 pages plus Glossary, Index and Bibliography Georgian Interiors Decorators Craftsmen
Manfredi, C. 2012 ’Comfort versus Industry: Maintenance of the Royal Palaces of Milan during the 1860s’, Nuts and Bolts of Construction, Vol 3, pp289-298 Paper presented at the 2012 Paris congress on Construction History concerning 19th century advances in building environmental technology and cultural resistance to their use in Milan. Milan, Building Services, Heating, Ventilation
Yeomans, D. 1992 The Trussed Roof: Its History and Development The definitive study of the history and development of trussed roofs, with particular attention to those of Britain but drawing upon their European origins and counterparts, written by a Structural Engineer and leading academic specialising in the analysis of historic structures. Roof truss, truss, king post, queen post, Wren, Inigo Jones, strut, tie beam
Stanier, P. 2000 Stone Quarry Landscapes: The Industrial Archaeology of Quarrying This book explains how building stone was extracted before the advent of modern machinery and then examines the history of the principle stone sources in Britain. It is well illustrated with historic photographs, prints and the authors explanatory line drawings and has an excellent bibliography. quarry quarrying mine stone
Guo, Q 2000 ’Tile and Brick Making in China: a Study of the Yingzao Fashi’, Construction History, Vol 16, pp3-12 Article examining the making of brick and tile as described in the oldest surviving published national building standard - the Yingzao Fashi of early 12th century Song China. brick tile Yingzao Fashi Song China standards
Fancelli, P. 2008 De Spoliis in Fictas Ruinas, in J.F.Bernard, P.Bernardi & D. Esposito (Eds), Il Reimpiego in Architettura: Recupero, Trasformazione, Uso; Collection de L’Ecole Francaise de Rome 418 Paper exploring the formative use of salvaged materials - or Spolia - in ’fictitious ruins’ of the Gothik and Romantic movements in 17th - early 19th C Europe, with large number of examples from Britain. spolia giardini Gothik Romantic Celtic Revival
Carvais, R. 2008 ’Le Reemploi des materiaux de construction a paris sous L’Ancient Regime’, in J.F.Bernard, P.Bernardi & D. Esposito (Eds), ’Il Reimpiego in Architettura: Recupero, Trasformazione, Uso’, Collections Ecole Freancaise de Rome 418 Paper on the economics and logistics of the use of salvaged construction materials in Paris during the 17th and 18th centuries, drawing on a large number of historical sources including building contracts. Reveals that ’salvage’ was not always cheaper than new material, especially during times of war. spolia salvage ancien regime paris
Volmer, L., & Zimmerman, W.H. 2012 Glossar zum praehistorischen und historischen Holzbau The definitive multi-lingual glossary for timber buildings in the principle north European and Scandinavian languages plus Czech and Polish. Well-illustrated and logically arranged by building type and building element, it also illustrates the similarities and differences between the timber building traditions of northern Europe and Scandinavia. glossary glossar wortbuch holzbau timber
McLean, W., & Silver, P. 2015 Air Structures Air can be used in a variety of ways to make lightweight, flexible structures. It can be used to make inflatable structures, mobile structures and temporary buildings. It can also activate movable elements and act as a means of constructing buildings that would be impossible with conventional construction methods. This book looks at every facet of the subject, examining the different types of air structure: super pressure buildings, air-beam structures, buoyant structures, inflatable structures and many more. It also looks at the construction methods that use air, such as air-inflated steel, aerated concrete and blow moulding. Inflatable, Pneumatic, Air-Pressure
Faircloth, B. 2015 Plastics Now: On Architecture’s Relationship to a Continuously Emerging Material Plastics, Construction, Architecture, Composites
Dietz, A. G. H 1969 Plastics for Architects and Builders Plastics, Construction, Architecture, Composites
Price, C., & Newby, F., & Suan, R.H. 1971 Air Structures: A survey Inflatable, Pneumatic, Air-Pressure, Government Report
Quarmby, A. 1974 The Plastic Architect Plastics, Fabrication Technology, Materials History, Spatial Enclosures
Institution of Structural Engineers 1999 Structural Use of Glass in Buildings Structural Glass, Stairs, Floors, Bridges, Balustrades, Lamination, Adhesives
Silver, P., McLean, W., & Veglio, S. 2006 Fabrication: The Designer’s Guide Fabrication Processes, Metal Spinning, Metal Casting, Terrazzo, Glass Reinforced Polymer
Bini, D. 2014 Building With Air Binidome, Binishell, Binix, Fabric-formed Concrete
Silver, P., McLean, W., & Evans, P. 2013 Structural Engineering for Architects: A Handbook This book provides an understanding of the fundamental theories and practice behind the creation of architectural structures. It aids the development of an intuitive understanding of structural engineering, bringing together technical and design issues. The book is divided into four sections: ’Structures in nature’ looks at structural principles found in natural objects. ’Theory’ covers general structural theory as well as explaining the main forces in engineering. ’Structural prototypes’ includes examples of modelmaking and load testing that can be carried out by students. The fourth section, ’Case studies’, presents a diverse range of examples from around the world – actual buildings that apply the theories and testing described in the previous sections. Structures in Nature, Structural Theory, Structural Systems, Case Studies
Silver, P., & McLean, W. 2013 Introduction to Architectural Technology (Second Edition) This book clearly explains the core aspects of architectural technology: structural physics, structural elements and forms, heating, lighting, environmental control and computer modelling. Hundreds of photographs and diagrams demonstrate common architectural forms and construction techniques. Historical and contemporary examples chart significant moments in architectural engineering and the development of materials science Includes an examination of computer-aided design (CAD) and the use of building information management (BIM) technology for predicting and analyzing the behaviour of buildings. Structure & Form, Structural Logic, Climate & Shelter, Human Comfort
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2002 Degli archi e delle volte. Arte del costruire tra meccanica e stereotomia Construction History
Becchi, A. 2004 Q.XVI. Leonardo, Galileo e il caso Baldi: Magonza, 26 marzo 1621
Becchi, A. 2017 Naufragi di terra e di mare. Da Leonardo da Vinci a Theodor Mommsen, alla ricerca dei codici Albani. Edizione del manoscritto XIII.F.25, cc. 129-136, della Biblioteca Nazionale di Napoli a cura di Oreste Trabucco
Becchi, A. 2007 I criteri di plasticità: cento anni di dibattito (1864-1964)
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2002 Towards a History of Construction
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2003 Essays in the History of Mechanics
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., Foce, F., & Pedemonte, O. 2004 Construction History. Research Perspectives in Europe
Becchi. A., Bertoloni Meli, D., & Gamba. E. 2013 Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607). Theory and Practice of the Mathematical Disciplines from Urbino to Europe
Becchi, A., Rousteau-Chambon, H., & Sakarovitch J. 2013 Philippe de La Hire entre Architecture et Sciences
Becchi, A., Carvais, R., & Sakarovitch, J. 2018 Construction History. Survey of a European Building Site / L’Histoire de la construction. Relevé d’un chantier européen
Becchi, A., Carvais, R., & Sakarovitch, J. 2015 Construction History. A European Meridian
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2005 Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica
Becchi, A. 2002 Aurea concinnitas: pour une orthodoxie hérétique, in A. Becchi, M. Corradi, F. Foce, O. Pedemonte (eds.), Towards a history of construction, Birkhäuser, Basel 2002, p. 523-528.
Becchi, A. 2003 Before 1695. The static of arches between France and Italy, in S. Huerta (ed.), Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History (Madrid, 20th - 24th January 2003), Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid 2003, vol. 1, p. 353-364.
Becchi, A. 2005 Raisons A-symétriques. Équilibre des formes et formes de l’équilibre dans la theoria columnarum, in P. Radelet-de Grave (ed.), Symétries, Brepols, Turnhout 2005, p. 35-61
Becchi, A. 2005 Fortuna (e sfortuna) critica del De re aedificatoria di Bernardino Baldi, in E. Nenci (ed.), Bernardino Baldi (1553-1617) studioso rinascimentale: poesia, storia, linguistica, meccanica, architettura, FrancoAngeli, Milan 2005, p. 303-316.
Becchi, A. 2005 Baustatik, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2005, vol. 1, col. 1093-1100
Becchi, A. 2005 Vaults in the Air: Signor Fabritio’s English Theory, in S. Huerta (ed.), Essays in the history of the theory of structures. In honour of Jacques Heyman, CEHOPU, CEDEX, Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid 2005, p. 45-59
Becchi, A. 2005 88317.63520 Tarli della storia, piatti di lenticchie e vecchie zie, in G. Mochi (ed.), Theory and Practice of Construction: Knowledge, Means, Models, Ed. Moderna, Ravenna 2005, vol. I, p. 57-62
Becchi, A. & Foce, F. 2005 Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica. From the passing references to a study of the sources, Introduction to the CD-rom series Bibliotheca Mechanico-Architectonica, Genoa 2005
Becchi, A. 2006 Festigkeitslehre, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2006, vol. 3, col. 945-948
Becchi, A. 2006 Gewölbebau, in F. Jaeger (ed.), Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit, J.B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Carl Ernst Poeschel Verlag, Stuttgart/Weimar 2006, vol. 4, col. 881-884
Becchi, A., Corradi, M., & Foce, F. 2006 La fine dell’inizio: 26 Maggio 1980 (with M. Corradi and F. Foce), in E. Benvenuto, La scienza delle costruzioni e il suo sviluppo storico, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Rome 2006, p. V-XVIII
Becchi, A. 2006 Eggs, turnips and chains: rhetoric and rhetoricians of architecture, in H. Schlimme (ed.), Practice and Science in Early Modern Italian Building. Towards an Epistemic History of Architecture, Electa, Milan 2006, p. 97-112
Becchi, A. 2007 Wusste Galileo davon? Die Architektur als Theatrum pro experimentali philosophia, in Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 2007 (digital edition,
Becchi, A. 2008 “Taccia dunque la turba de gli Architetti pratici ...”. Henry Wotton und der Abt von Guastalla, in W. Oechslin (ed.), Wissensformen, gta-Verlag, Zürich 2008, p. 100-107
Becchi, A. 2008 Imaginer l’entasis. Constructions, définitions, malentendus dans les traités de la Renaissance, in R. Gargiani (ed.), La construction de la colonne. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 2008, p. 149-163
Becchi, A. 2008 Les paradoxes (historiographiques) de la vis columnarum, in R. Gargiani (ed.), La construction de la colonne. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 2008, p. 203-219
Becchi, A. 2008 Bernardino Baldi, in N. Koertge (ed.), The new dictionary of scientific biography, vol. 1, Ch. Scribner’s Sons, Detroit 2008, p. 166-168
Becchi, A. 2009 Vitruvius in the Sahara: Auguste Choisy’s ‘philologie plafonnante’, in J. Girón, S. Huerta (eds.), Auguste Choisy (1841-1909). L’architecture et l’art de bâtir. Actas del Simposio Internacional, Madrid, 19-20.11.2009
Becchi, A. 2009 Juxta textum Vitruvii et mentem Newtonii. Das neue Wissen und das «Räthsel der Architektur», in W. Oechslin (ed.), Architekt und/versus Baumeister, gta Verlag, Zürich 2009, p. 40-49
Becchi, A. 2009 Pregnant Columns. From Word to Shape, in H. Nowacki, W. Lefèvre (eds.), Creating Shapes in Civil and Naval Architecture. A Cross-Disciplinary Comparison, Brill, Leiden and Boston 2009, pp. 279-296
Becchi, A. 2009 The Body of the Architect. Flesh, Bones and Forces between Mechanical and Architectural Theories, in K.-E. Kurrer, W. Lorenz, V. Wetzk (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Construction History, Cottbus, 2009, vol. 1, p. 151-158
Becchi, A. 2009 Uno e trino. Impronte stravaganti di un testimone postumo, in F.P. Di Teodoro (ed.), Saggi di letteratura architettonica, da Vitruvio a Winckelmann, Olschki, Florence 2009, vol. 1, p. 19-35
Becchi, A. 2010 La doppia vita di una ‘mauvaise règle’. La regola di Derand tra Leon Battista Alberti e Simone Stratico, in P. Cassinello, S. Huerta, J.M. de Prada Poole, R.S. Lampreave (eds.), Geometry and Proportion in Structural Design, p. 123-139
Becchi, A. 2010 Architecture as a mechanical problem. A ‘new’ Renaissance manuscript and some old stories, in A. Sinopoli (ed.), Mechanics and architecture between Epistéme and Techné, Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Rome 2010, p. 97-106
Becchi, A. 2010 Histoire de la construction: un regard italien, in R. Carvais, A. Guillerme, V. Nègre, J. Sakarovitch (eds.), Édifice et artifice. Histoires constructives, Picard, Paris 2010, p. 59-63
Becchi, A. 2010 L’asino che vola: architettura, ricerca, metodi tossici, in E. Rabasa, J. Ibáñez, D. Sanz (eds.), Actas Tercera Jornadas Sobre Investigación en Arquitectura y Urbanismo (Madrid, 17-19 Junio 2009), Mairea Libros, Madrid 2010, p. XXXIV-XLVII
Becchi, A. 2011 Cantieri d’inchiostro: meccanica teorica e meccanica chirurgica nella seconda metà del Cinquecento, in G. Curcio, N. Navone, S. Villari (eds.), Studi su Domenico Fontana 1543-1607, Silvana Editoriale, Milan 2011, p. 91-103
Becchi, A. 2012 La poutre brisée: une question, deux réponses, in R. Gargiani (dir.), L’architrave, le plancher, la plate-forme. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne 2012, p. 316-328
Becchi, A. 2012 Ut unum sint: poutres, arcs, plates-bandes, in R. Gargiani (dir.), L’architrave, le plancher, la plate-forme. Nouvelle histoire de la construction, Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes, Lausanne 2012, p. 329-340
Becchi, A. 2012 Il corpo dell’inventio: Vitruvio interprete di Archimede, in “Horti Hesperidum. Studi di storia del collezionismo e della storiografia artistica”, 2012, fasc. 2, p. 39-60
Becchi, A. 2013 Idées manuscrites, théories imprimées: la mécanique architecturale de Philippe de La Hire, in A. Becchi, H. Rousteau-Chambon, J. Sakarovitch (eds.), Philippe de La Hire entre architecture et sciences, Picard, Paris 2013, pp. 177-190
Becchi, A. 2013 ...zoticamente non intendendo le Mechaniche. La scientia aedificandi ai tempi di Guidobaldo del Monte, in A. Becchi, D. Bertoloni Meli, E. Gamba (eds.), Guidobaldo del Monte (1545-1607), p. 241-263
Becchi, A. 2013 Archimedes’ Bath, in G. Di Pasquale, C. Parisi Presicce (eds.), Archimedes. The Art and Science of Invention, Giunti, Florence 2013, p. 115-119
Becchi, A. 2013 Architectus omnibus armis ornatus. Sind die Waffen des Architekten nur Spielzeuge?, in Jahrbuch 2012, Braunschweigische Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft, J. Cramer Verlag, Braunschweig 2013, p. 215-225
Becchi, A. 2013 Looking for an equilibrium point: Wilson, Machiavelli and the King of Siam, in “Construction History. International Journal of the Construction History Society”, vol. 28, N. 3, 2013, p. 1-19
Becchi, A. 2014 Fokus: Die Gestalt der Säule, in J. Renn, W. Osthues, H. Schlimme (eds.), Wissensgeschichte der Architektur, Edition Open Access, Berlin 2014, vol. 3, p. 369-396
Becchi, A. 2014 Fokus: Architektur und Mechanik, in J. Renn, W. Osthues, H. Schlimme (eds.), Wissensgeschichte der Architektur, Edition Open Access, Berlin 2014, vol. 3, p. 397-428
Becchi, A. 2014 À Joël, le juste, in “Construction History. International Journal of the Construction History Society”, vol. 29, N. 1, 2014, p. ix-xi; also “Scholion”, 8, 2014, p. 177-179
Becchi, A. 2015 Vitruvius zu den Zeiten der reinen Vernunft: Giovanni Poleni, Simone Stratico und ihre Exercitationes, in U. Hassler (ed.), Der Lehrbuchdiskurs über das Bauen, Institut für Denkmalpflege und Bauforschung der ETH Zürich, Zürich 2015, p. 78-92
Becchi, A. 2015 Eugene Goostman et les pierres de Saint-Pétersbourg, in “Re-Vue Malaquais”, n. 2, 2015, p. 46-49
Becchi, A. 2015 Oltre la ‘Scientia de ponderibus’, in P. Caye, R. Nanni, P.D. Napolitani (eds.), Scienze e rappresentazioni: saggi in onore di Pierre Souffrin, Olschki, Florence, 2015, p. 389-403
Becchi, A. 2016 Drawing Proofs: lo sguardo cinematico di Robert Willis, in A. Buchanan, J.W.P. Campbell, J. Girón, S. Huerta (eds.), Robert Willis. Science, Technology and Architecture in the Nineteenth Century, Instituto Juan de Herrera, Madrid, 2016, p. 141-165
Becchi, A. 2016 Learning from falling stones: Autobiografie scientifiche between mechanics and architecture, in “Science et technique en perspective”, IIe série, vol. 18, fasc. 2, 2016, p. 3-18
Becchi, A. 2017 I commenti di Daniele Barbaro al Proemio della ’terza parte principale dell’Architettura’ (1556-1567), in F. Lemerle, V. Zara, P. Caye, L. Moretti (eds.), Daniele Barbaro 1514-1570, Brepols, Turnhout, 2017, p. 187-198
Becchi, A. 2017 La lezione di Salmacide: Vitruvio e il potere delle acque, in T.G. Schattner, F. Valdés Fernández (eds.), Wasserversorgung in Toledo und Wissensvermittlung von der Antike ins Mittelalter, Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, Tübingen/Berlin, 2017, p. 371-385
Heaton, M.J. 2018 ’How medieval is a Medieval house: Whitestaunton Manort, Chard, Somerset?’, Transactions of the Ancient Monuments Society, 62, pp53-71 Case study analysis of the manner and extent to which a nominally medieval building incorporates in situ Roman masonry, medieval and post-medieval rebuilding and 17th - 18th century spolia. In particular, the article suggests that radical Non-Conformist owners in the early 18th century used spolia and faux-archaeological details to enhance their political and cultural legitimacy, in the same way that Catholic owners (in Britain) were in the 17th and 18th centuries. The article also identifies early 20th century use of salvaged decorative fabric that has, hitherto, been ascribed an early 17th century date on typological grounds, and warns of the danger of analysing such buildings on the basis of superficial fabric alone. Whitestaunton Elton Brett Hugyn spolia salvage in-situ re-building
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’They don’t build ’em like they used to: The defective flyers of Christchurch Priory’, CHS Newsletter, 84, pp6-7 A short article on observations made during geotechnical investigations at Christhchurch Priory in Dorset (GB), which revealed that the flying buttress of the 14th century Quire Aisles do not have any structural foundations. They are therefore largely cosmetic, and hence failing. This means that, contrary to received wisdom about the medieval builders’ empirical understanding of statics, the builders of this stage of the monastic church did not understand the function of flying buttresses and that, probably, the buttresses were added simply because it was fashionable to do so. statics flying buttresses christchurch foundations medieval quire dorset
Heaton, M.J. 2016 ’The Nave Roof at Holy Trinity Church, Warmell, Dorset’, The Construction Historian, 1, pp7-9 Case study analysis of a ’Scissor Brace’ truss roof added to the 13th C parish church of Warmell in c. 1750-1770 (dendro). Citing Yeomans (1992), the report concludes that this particular form of roof was first used in Britain in London in the late 17th C and that the knowledge transfer of the design to the West Country took c. 100 years. scissor brace truss dorset warmwell
Heaton, M.J. 2009 ’Dunster Castle Roof’, CHS Newsletter, 86, pp2-5. Case study report and analysis of the roof structure of Dunster Castle near Minehead in Somerset. Assisted by dendrochronology, the report describes and identifies a primary lead-covered flat roof of c. 1617 that was re-engineered in 1722-8 by the addition of king posts and principal rafters. The jointing and other forms of connection are unusual, employing ’forelock’ bolts and large sprockets redolent of marine construction. Dunster roof king-post forelock bolt flat-roof lead
Heaton, M.J. 2008 ’Crinolines and scaffolding: The value of church records to the historical study of women in construction’, CHS Newsletter, 81, pp3-4 Case study report arising from the author’s examination of church archives for a Conservation Management Plan. 18th and 19th century archives held by Christchurch Priory record that a significant amount of the repair and rebuilding work commissioned by the church during the 18th and 19th centuries was undertaken by women acting as main contractors employing male tradesmen. Some of those women had inherited their companies from their deceased husbands, but not all of them had. More importantly, none appear in the civil records (trade directories, census etc.). The report concludes that, given the importance of the Church to pre-20th C British society, church records might be a more reliable indicator of female involvement in the construction industry than civil records. christchurch women contractors indemnities pews repair rebuilding
Heaton, M.J. and Davenport, P. 2003 ’A Late Medieval Timber Frame at Nos 21-22 High Street, Bath’, Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeol. & Natural History Soc., 146, pp73-79 Case study report on a 16th century timber framed building discovered during refurbishment of a superficially Georgian building in central Bath. The report describes the structure and summarises the documented history of the site. Unfortunately dendrochronology was not employed because the principal timbers are salvaged, so the structure is dated broadly to 1400-1600 typologically. The significance of the discovery is that it demonstrates that the Georgian ’re-building’ of Bath in the 18th century did not involve wholesale demolition of the pre-existing medieval and post-medieval building stock, as has hitherto been assumed. Similar, though not as complete, survivals have been noted elsewhere in central Bath Bath medieval facadism facade Georgian salvage
Andrew Rabeneck 2015 Industries of Architecture - "The place of architecture in the new economy" I offer a speculation on the future place of architecture in society. I explain the increasing marginalisation of design professionals in construction, based on trends that are already impinging on their daily experience of practice. These trends derive indirectly from the widespread deregulation of financial markets in the 1980s, and the subsequent political adoption of neoclassical libertarian economics around the world. In short, the free global movement of capital has irreversibly transformed the political economy of construction. To recapture pre-eminence in the evolving setting design professionals would need to radically change both their education and practice, but there is little chance that this will happen. Further marginalisation is inevitable globalisation, capital, professional education
Andrew Rabeneck 2011 CHS Journal Volume 26 - "Building for the future - schools fit for our children" This essay contrasts responses to post-war demand for school building first in Britain and later in America. In both cases modernist architects were primary actors, inspired by ideologies of pioneers such as Walter Gropius. They became instrumental in developing construction techniques involving educational innovation and prefabrication. In Britain’s centralised command economy, dominated by scarcity of resources, innovative organisations quickly collapsed when economic conditions changed. But in America, by goading industry to innovate in sustainable ways through the agency of a private foundation, idealistic architects achieved a lasting impact on the construction industry. Schools, post-war construction, prefabrication, Britain, USA.
Andrew Rabeneck 2012 ”The Transformation of Construction by Concrete", Nuts and Bolts of Construction History, proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Construction History, Paris,vol. 2, 627-635. In this paper I argue that concrete has played a critical role in the complete transformation of construction from a local demand-led craft to a global supply-led industry, a transformation not just of technique, but of labour processes and organisation. concrete, industrialisation, globalisation, concrete products
Theodossopoulos, D 2016 The catastrophic repairs of Holyrood Abbey church in 1760 The collapse of the significant church of Holyrood Abbey in Edinburgh in December 1768 is discussed as the result of the ill-conceived repair of the roof in 1760, i.e. the substitution of the timber trusses with closely-spaced diaphragm masonry walls that aggravated the delicate equilibrium of the vaults and the poor state of a building being mutilated over 250 years. This study interprets these repairs by demonstrating the authorship and partnership of the architect John Douglas with the mason-developer James McPherson, who combined architectural ambition (the aesthetics of a flagstone roof) with the (cheaper) option of diaphragms, which would not involve a wright. The detailed examination of the procurement, the process of the intervention, the collapse and the limited impact of its aftermath, are framed in a wider technical and historical context in Edinburgh and Scotland, during a period marked by several failures of medieval churches, and reveals a poor understanding of a critical element in Gothic construction. Analysis of all public archive material available sheds light on key events of the case, and critical study of the work of the two partners’ attempts to identify the intentions of their project, whose limitations were inevitable once the partnership was formed. Edinburgh; gothic; Holyrood; John Douglas; restoration; stone vaulting
Wermiel, S., 1993 The development of fireproof construction in Great Britain and the United States in the Nineteenth Century, Construction History, Vol 9, pp3-26 The authoritative study of the development of purposely fireproof structures and materials, mainly in industrial and commercial buildings, concentrating on the British and American industries fireproof fire-proof
Louw, H. 1993 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain from the late-eighteenth to the early twentieth century, and its practical, social and aesthetic implications. Part 2: Technological progress, c. 1860 to c. 1915, Construction History, Vol 9, pp27-50 Authoritative study of the machines, buildings and materials developed to facilitate the mechanical cutting and shaping of decorative joinery components; and the effects this had on the industry and its clients. Contains a large number of detailed images of 19th C woodworking machinery. joinery woodwork workshop
Steel, M.W., and Cheetham, D.W. 1993 Frank Bunker Gilbreth: Building contractor, inventor and pioneer industrial engineer, Construction History, VFol 9, pp51-70 The only published study of the working lives of Frank and Lilian Bunker Gilbreth, examining their application of Time and Motion studies and Scientific Management to the American construction industry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Time and Motion Scientific Management Construction Management
Cooney, E.W. 1993 Productivity, Conflict and Order in the British construction industry: A historical view, Construction History, Vol 9, pp71-84 Study of the issues effecting productivity and labour-relations in the British construction industry to the late 20th century. Examines the changing structure of the industry and the legal, economic and social issues this ocassioned. conflict productivity relations contract law economics subcontracting
McWilliam, R.C. 1993 The Science Museum, the construction industry and a Grubenmann wooden bridge model, Construction History, Vol 9, pp85-88 A short article alerting readers to the contents of the Science Museum in London and its relevance to Construction History
Musgrave, Elizabeth, C., 1994 The organisation of the building trades of eastern Brittany 1600-1790: some observations, Construction History, VFol 10, pp1-16 France Brittany Trades Guilds
Shallat, T. 1994 Science and the Grand Design: origins of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Construction History, Vol 10, pp17-28 US USA Corps Engineers Simon Bernard Presque Isle
Booth, L.G. 1994 Henry Fuller’s glued laminated timber roof for Rusholme Road Congregational sunday school and other early timber roofs, Construction History, Vol 10, pp29-46 Glued Laminated Roofs Rusholme nineteenth century Fuller
Smith, N. A. F. 1994 The failure of the Bouzey Dam in 1895, Construction History, Vol 10, pp47-66 Epinal Dale Dyke Johnstown South Fork Dam Dams
Walker, A. 1994 Plastics: the building blocks of the twentieth century, Construction History, Vol 10, pp67-88 A study of the evolution, use and potential of plastics for the construction industry plastic Baekeland Swinburn Staudinger Carothers DuPont
Penn, R., Wild, S., and Mascarennas, J. 1995 The Pomboline Quarter of Lisbon: an eighteenth century example of prefabrication and dimensional co-ordination. Construction History, Vol 1, pp3-18 Portugal earthquake alluvium Monteiro Maia
Harper, R. 1995 The building of the Cutlers’ Hall, Sheffield, 1830-34. Construction History, Vol 11, pp19-32 Worth Taylor Laycock contracts contractor
Skempton, A.W. 1995 Embankments and cuttings on early railways, Construction History, Vol 11, pp33-50 excavation management end-tipping horse-runs side-cutting slips volumetric analysis cuttings failure
Louw, H. 1995 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork from the late eighteenth century to the early twentieth century, nd its practical, social and aesthetic implications Part III: the retreat of the handicrafts.Construction History, Vol 11, pp51-72 The third of four articles dealing with this important subject, concentrating on the advance of machinery in the marketplace and in the workplace. joinery machinery windows doors skirtings
Trepetina, N.V. 1995 The archives of the St Petersburg Institute of the Corps of Communications Engineers, Construction History, Vol 11, pp73-80 Betancourt Bazaine Potue Mongeo Fabr
Weiler, J,. 1996 Colonial connections: Royal Engineers and building technology transfer in the nineteenth century, Construction History, Vol 12, pp3-18 military ordnance Pasley Smith Vicat Macleod Cotton India Australia Canada Barlow Bridges prefabrication tropics barracks empire
Louw, H. 1996 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain from th elate eighteenth century to the early twentieth century, and its practical, social and aesthetic implications. Part IV: the end of an era. Construction History, Vol 12, pp19-40 artist marketplace machinery craft
Federov, S.G. 1996 Early iron domed roofs in Russian church architecture: 1800-1840. Construction History, Vol 12, pp41-66 St Petersburg Kazan St Isaac dome
Cody, J.W. 1996 Erecting monuments to the god of business and trade: the Fuller Construction Company of the Orient, 1919-1926. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 67-82 Japan China Wheeler Capron Holt
Ruddock, E. 1996 Charles Holden and the issue of high buildings-London, 1927-47. London’d highest buildings, 1927-1938: 55 Broadway and Senate House. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 83-100 tall buildings
Atkinson, G. 1996 Though during the Building Research Establishment’s 75th anniversary. Construction History, Vol 12, pp 101-108 BRE privatisation BRS
Day, T. 1997 Did Telford rely, in northern Scotland, on vigilant inspectors or competent contractors?. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 3-16 contracts contract management Burn Minto bridges roads
Brooke, D. 1997 William Mackenzie and railways in France. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 17-28 Brassey Mackenzie Locke canals organisation plant profits
Lucas, R. 1997 The tax on bricks and tiles, 1784-1850: its application to the country at large and, in particular, to the county of Norfolk. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 29-56 bricks tiles tax Georgian 18th century England
Cox, A. 1997 A vital component: stock bricks in Georgian London. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 56-66 stock bricks Georgian London 18th
Booth, L.G. 1997 The design and construction of timber paraboloid sheel roofs in Britain: 1957-1975. Construction History, Vol 13, pp67-90 timber shell roof TDA TRADA hyperbolic paraboloid Newsum
Spencer-Silver, P. 1997 William Edwin Jackson’s cashbook: Part 1, 1845-1847. Construction History, Vol 13, pp 91-115 Pugin
Mendel, R. 1998 Craft labour and the development of trade unionism among building tradesmen in late nineteenth century New York. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 3-20 America USA sub-contracting technological innovation strikes industrial action
Jackson, A. A. 1998 The development of steel framed buildings in Britain 1880-1905. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 21-40 Ritz hotel industrial market street store Dublin railway Waterhouse Midland hotel
Radford, D. 1998 The early history of the tall building in South African city. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 41-58 Cape Town
Yeomans, D. 1998 The pre-history of the curtain wall. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 59-82 Crystal Palace Baumann Reliance Chicago glass factories commercial Davison Alcoa Equitable
Cooney, E.W. 1998 Eighteenth century Britain’s missing sawmills: a return visit. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 83-88 Limehouse Dingley Stansfield Dossie Dutch sawyer shipbuilding Spey Netherlands Holland Zaanstrek
Spencer-Silver, P. 1998 William Edwin Jackson’s cashbook: Part 2, 1848-1849. Construction History, Vol 14, pp 89-112
Powell, C. 1999 Cobling and Helling: a Georgian building firm at work. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 3-14 Firm firms Georgian Crediton Devon Prawl
Woodley, R. 1999 Professionals: early episodes among architects and engineers.Construction History, Vol 15, pp 15-22 Mylne Smeaton Blackfriar’s bridge
Anderson, J. 1999 Urban development as a component of government policy in the aftermath of the Napoleonic War.Construction History, Vol 15, pp 23-38 WFLR Fordyce revenue Georgian Britain Nash
Lorenz, W. 1999 Classicism and High Technology- the Berlin Neues Museum. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 39-56 Prussia Preussen Borsig Beauth Egells Christian Conrad
Yarwood, J.R. 1999 Traditional building construction in an historic Arabian town. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 57-78 Al Muharraq Bahrain diffusion Rivoyre coral materials arches doors stairs climate sanitation
Ashby, J. 1999 The aluminium legacy: the history of the metal and its role in architecture. Construction History, Vol 15, pp 79-90 aluminium casting
Guo, Quinghua 2000 Tile and brick making in China: a study of the Yingzao Fashi. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 3-12 China brick tile Yingzao Fashi Zhou quinggun Tiangong Kaiwu Song
Pepper, S. 2000 Sword and spade: military construction in Renaissance Italy. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 13-32 Brunelleschi vinci martini durer michelangelo taccola Lucca Giorgio Sarzana Siennas
Clarke, J. 2000 Material concerns in the Pacific Northwest: steel versus reinforced concrete in highway bridge design in Washington State, 1910-1930. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 33-62 America USA Melan Baker river bridge Columbia truss chehalis
Dunster, D. 2000 Financing and building Wacker Drive, Chicago. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 63-76 America USA Michigan urban planning tall building
Cross-Rudkin, P. 2000 Professional lives: compiling the Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 77-87
Walker, A. 2000 Historical influences on th euse of cement in Mexican domestic construction. Construction History, Vol 16, pp 87-99 Mexico domestic house casa promotion
Guo, Quighua 2001 The formation and early development of architecture in northern China. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 3-16 Meng Zi Tang dynasty Yaodong houses domestic
Campbell, J.W.P., and Saint, A. 2001 A bibliography of works on brick published in England before 1750.Construction History, Vol 17, pp 17-30 manuals mensuration pricing Ive Wotton Willsford Brown Gerbier Primatt Leybourn Hammond Woolridge Wolridge Coggeshall Foster Plot Mandey Houghton Barker Wing Moxon Neve Roman Coehoorn Aldrich Morton Hawney Good halfpenny Langley Chambers Rowland Salmon
Smith, T.P. 2001 On small yellow bricks ....from Holland. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 31-42 klinker klinkaert Ijsselstenen Netherlands
Wermiel, S.E. 2001 An unusual application of wire cables from the 1850s: Benjamin Severson’s wire-tied iron girders. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 43-54 America USA trussed girder
Lorenz, W., and Rohde, A. 2001 Building with iron in nineteenth century Bavaria: the Valhalla roof truss and its architect Leo von Klenze. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 55-76 Regensburg Schinkel Munich Befreiungshalle Kelheim
Gould, M.H. 2001 A historical perspective on the Belfast roof truss. Construction History, Vol 17, pp 75-89 bowstring Steppings Delorme Libourne Anderson
Locock, M. 1992 The development of the building trades in the West Midlands, 1400-1850.Construction History, Vol 8, pp 3-20 medieval post-medieval
Louw, H. 1992 The mechanisation of architectural woodwork in Britain Part 1. The period c. 1790-c. 1860.Construction History, Vol 8, pp 21-55 joinery machinery windows doors skirting
Jackson, N. 1992 Views with a room: taxation and the return of the bay window to the third rate speculative houses of mid nineteenth-century London. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 55-68 terraced rates rated tax taxation
Federov, S.G. 1992 Matthew Clark and the origins of Russian structural engineering 1810-40s: an introductory biography. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 69-88 Russia Alexandrovskij St Petersburg Aleksandrinskij iron roofs theatre
Smith, S. 2001 The design of structural ironwork 1850-1890: Education, Theory and Practice. Construction History, Vol 8, pp 89-108 specialisation McQuorne Rankine
Portman, D.R. 2002 A business history of the Clifton Suspension Bridge. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 3-20 Bristol gorge Smyth Brunel estimates funding speculative Hawkshaw Barlow
Hurst, L. 2002 The properties and uses of Portland Cement. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 21-36 Roman creasing drainage sewers waterproof hydraulic Parker Smirke Smeaton masonry brickwork civil
Clarke, J. 2002 Like a huge birdcage exhaled from the earth: Watson’s Esplanade Hotel, Mumbai (1867-71) and its place in Structural History. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 37-78 India Raj
Tappin, S. 2002 The early use of reinforced concrete in India. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 79-98
Vale, B., and Richmond, P. 2002 The English at Point England. Construction History, Vol 18, pp 99-110. A study of the mass introduction of pre-fabricated timber houses to New Zealand in the mid 20th century pre-fabricated houses Australia Auckland kitset Simms Cooke import
Mainstone, R. 2003 Saving the dome of St Peter’s. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 3-18 Study of 18th C structural repair of the dome of St Peter’s church at Rome Rome St Peter’s Bramante Vanvitelli eighteenth century Parere Poleni Riflessioni Aggiunta mathematicians
Louw, H. 2005 The windows of perrault’s Observatory in Paris (1667-1683): the legacy of a proto-modern architectural inventor. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 19-46
Yeomans, D. 2005 Soane and Swiss bridges. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 47-64 Switzerland Shaffhausen Grubenmann Richenau Wettingen trestle arch Hangewerke Haengewerke trusses
Trout, E.A.R 2005 Concrete Publications Ltd and its legacy to the concrete industry. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 65-86 One of several studies of the specialist publisher Concrete Publications Ltd Sachs Twentieth century Faber Childe
Gallo, E. 2005 Skyscrapers and district heating, an inter-related history 1876-1933. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 87-106 Examines the inter-dependency of skyscrapers and ’district heating’ systems in America America US Birdsill Holly
Swenarton, M. 2005 Rammed earth revival: technological innovation and government policy in Britain, 1905-1925. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 107-126 Study of the British government’s investigation of the economics and practicalities of using chalk as a building material for mass housing in the early 20th C. Amesbury Wiltshire chalk cob pise chalk and clay rammed earth
Guo, Quinghua 2004 From tower to pagoda: structural and technological transition. Construction History, Vol 19, pp 3-20. Han Qing gua xie que lou ge Shouwen Jiezi Buddhism Yingzao fashi diantang tingtang pingzuo chanzhu zao chazhu zao
Campbell, J.W.P. 2004 Nicholas Hawksmoor’s building notebook. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 21-44
Brindle, S., and Tucker, M. 2004 Brunel’s lost bridge: the rediscovery and salvage of the Bishops Road Canal Bridge, Paddington. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 45-70 GWR
Portman, D.R. 2004 Henry Marc Brunel - civil engineer. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 71-84 Armstrong Brunel Channel tunnel Froude Wolfe Barry Tower Bridge
Alegre, A., and Heitor, T. 2004 Flexibility in the first generation of reinforced concrete housing: a public housing estate in Lisbon. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 85-94 Portugal alvalade
Picon, A. 2006 Construction History: between technological and cultural history. Construction History, Vol 21, pp 5-20 Historiographical essay
Saint, A. 2006 Architect and engineer: a study in construction history. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 21-30 historiographical essay
Lorenz, W. 2006 From stories to history, from history to histories: what can construction history do ? Construction History, Vol 20, pp 31-42 Historiographical essay
Clarke, J. 2006 Cones, not domes: John Nash and regency structural innovation. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 43-64 Rotunda artillery Carlton House Polygon room woolwich
Yeomans, D. 2006 The behaviour of the structure. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 65-68
Swenarton, M. 2006 Breeze blocks and Bolshevism: housing policy and the origins of the Building Research Station 1917-21. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 69-80 BRE BRS
Federov, S.G. 2006 Construction History in the Soviet Union-Russia: 1930-2005 Emergence, Development and Disappearance of a technical discipline. Construction History, Vol 20, pp 81-99
Hiskey, C. 2007 Palladian and Practical: Country house technology at Holkham Hall. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 3-26 services sanitation 18th C eighteenth laundry sewers drains heating kitchen lighting fire communications
Wells, J.C. 2007 A history of structural hollow clay tile in the United States. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 27-46 fire-proof
Ramage, M. 2007 Guastavino’s vault construction revisited. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 47-60 timbrel vaulting bovedas tabicadas shell
Harris, G. 2007 Ove Arup and box frame construction. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 61-74.
Bullock, N. 2007 You assemble a lorry, but you build a house. Noisy-le-sec and the French debate on industrial housing 1944-49. Construction History, Vol 22, pp 75-96 MRU modernisation pre-fabrication AIROH
Jones, B., Sereni, A., and Ricci, M. 2008 Building Brunelleschi’s dome: a practical methodology verified by experiment. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 3-30 Experimental archaeology examining how the dome was constructed without formwork Florence Duomo Fiore octagonal ribs herringbone bricks
Holzer, S. 2008 Structural iron elements in German timber roofs (1600-1800). Construction History, Vol 23 pp 33-58
Bullock, N. 2008 20,000 dwellings a month for forty years: France’s industrialised housing sector in the 1950s. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 59-76
Van de Voorde, S., and Meyer, R., 2007 On the interface between architecture, engineering and technology. Two case studies in concrete construction in Belgium. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 77-98 preflex beam Zuidertoren Sculpture House
Pepper, S. and Richmond, P. 2008 Cottages, flats and reconditioning: renewal strategies in London after World War One. Construction History, Vol 23 pp 99-118 LCC Tabard housing
Lancaster, L. 2009 Terracotta vaulting tubes in Roman architecture: a case study of the interrelationship between technologies and trade in the Mediterranean. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 3-18
Mainstone, R. 2009 Brunelleschi’s dome revisited. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 19-30
Gomez-Ferrer, M. 2009 The origins of tile vaulting in Valencia. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 31-44 Spain 16th C sixteenth vaulting
Osborne, R. 2009 Cast iron windows in Anglican churches in England 1791-1840.Construction History, Vol 24 pp 45-62
Anderson, J. 2009 The operation of the early nineteenth century property market. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 63-82 The definitive article on how the speculative developments of London and other British cities was funded and executed. ground rents agreements leases market landowner developer contractor attorney investor funding investment lease building-lease monetization
Isaacs, N. 2009 Nails in New Zealand 1770 to 1910. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 83-103
Devos, R., and Flore, F., 2009 Modern wood. De Coene at Expo 58. Construction History, Vol 24 pp 103-120
Wenzel, F., 2010 Investigations into the construction and repair history of the Hagia Sophia. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 1-20 Bauforschung geophysics radar tomography buildings archaeology Turkey
Sinopoli, A. 2010 No tension behaviour and best shape of pseudo-vaults. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 21-52 analysis of the structural behaviour of prehistoric, medieval, renaissance and modern vaults in the mediterranean
Thom, C. 2010 Fine veneers, army boots and tinfoil: new light on Marc Isambard Brunel’s activities in Battersea. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 53-68
Leslie, T. 2010 ’Built mostly of itself’: The Chicago brick industry and the masonry skyscraper in the late 19th century. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 69-84
Bowen, B. 2010 The building of the British Westinghouse Electricv and manufacturing plant, Trafford Park, Manchester, 1901-2: an early example of transatlantic co-operation in construction management .Construction History, Vol 25, pp85-100
Sutherland, J. 2010 Revival of structural timber in Britain after 1945. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 101-114
Deregibus, C., and Pugnale, A. 2010 The church of Longuelo by Pino Pizzigoni: design and construction of an experimental structure. Construction History, Vol 25, pp 115-140
Bertels, I. 2011 Building contractors in late nineteenth century Belgium: from craftsmen to contractors. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 1-18 The search for the best contractor, from a qualitative and/or economic perspective, became a quest for several clients andn designers in the course of the nineteenth century. In 1879, Ernest Allard (1849-1898) formulated the frustrations of a broad group of architects in ’L’Emulation’, Belgium’s leading architectural periodical at that time, and complained about the standardisation of the building process and the many ’misinterpretations’ contractors made when putting their design into practice. Opposition forces defending the building contractors have limited presence within architectural historiography. This article examines, via the concept of professionalisation, elementary aspects, such as contractors’ professional juridical position, their search for appropriate applied training, and their professional networking and demonstrates how part of this specific group of builders, those who were active in public works, can be defined and evolved within the late 19th C Belgian context. The article shows how, within a dialetical process with related professions, including architects and engineers, contractors gradually obtained strictly defined positions and job responsibilities, but also their personal social and legal status, organisation and knowledge. For this growing group of contractors the 19th C became an important lynchpin between traditional organisations, namely guilds and trades and modern building organisation. contractorsd buildinging organisation technical education Belgium 19th century
Schoenefeldt, H. 2011 The use of scientific experimentation in developing the glazing of the Palm House at Kew. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 19-40 This paper investigates the role of scientific experimentation in the design development of the Palm House at the Royal Botanic Garden at Kew, designed and constructed in 1844-48. It focuses on the cross-disciplinary design process underlying development of a special light-filtering glass that was adopted for protecting the tropical plants from the solar radiation transmitted by the highly transparent glass skin. To validate the performance of the glass, the design team was not only dependent on the study of the optical and chemical properties of the glass, but also relied on scientific research into the effect of natural light on the physiology of plants. Kew commissioned the scientist Robert Hunt to conduct a series of scientific experiments, first to specify the right tint and to assist the glass manufacturer in producing a glass with the required properties. The final section discusses the performance history of the glazing as a solar control strategy. Glass, lighting, Palm House, botanic gardens, internal envuironment, experimentation.
Morice, P. 2011 A sketch of Wexham Springs history: the early years of the Cement and Concrete Association, 1948-58. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 41-55 The paper records the early history of Wexham Springs, the research station of the Cement and Concrete Association. The author was the Head of the Structures Department from 1948during its first ten years, when topics of particualr interest were pre-stressed concrete and shell roofs. Residential training courses on pre-stressing for professional engineers were introduced in `1950 as part of the Research Station’s responsibilities. The paper is necessarily biased towards the structures aspect of the research station’s activities. concrete researc, pre-stressed concrete, prestressed concrete, structural engineering, stuctural models, bridge tests.
Guillerme, A. 2011 Enclosing nature in the City: supplying light and water to Paris 1770-1840. Construction History, Vol 26, pp 79-94 Between 1770 and 1840, there was a new emphasis on material comfort in the life of France’s growing middle classes, provided in urban areas by innovation in heating, lighting and water supply. Old techniques were greatly improved by the application of science and the development of new technologies that reduced the need for human work and energy consumption. These technologies also gave birth to new crafts and new industries. For the first time, metal piping was used extensively beneath the public realm of the city, the rapidly developing streets and squares of Paris. The novel ability to transport liquids, through what civil engineers came to define as the new applied science of the network, began the liberation of the city from its old dependence on the natural environment. Paris, 18th century, 19th century, heating, lighting, potable water, drainage, sewers, public utilities, networks.
Tain-Guzman, M., Alonso-Rodriguez, M., Calvo-Lopez 2012 Stonecutters’ literature and construction practice in Early Modern Gothic: the tracings for a rib vault at the Cathedral of Tui in Galicia. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 1-22 According to the manuscript of Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon, written about 1550, late Gothic builders used full-size traci8ngs o9f rib vaults in order to control the placement of the voussoirs of these vaults. No 16th C tracing for a rib vault has been preserved in the Iberian Peninsula, as far as we know; however, a tracing is preserved on the floor of Saint Catherine’s Chapel in Tui cathedral, resembling closely the rib vaults in the cathedral’s sacristy. The chapel underwent a thorough renovatuion between 1707 and `1710; thus, ther tracing was, quite probably prepared in connection with the refurbishment of the Sacristy vaults in 1709. Building on surveys odf the tracing tha vaults, the authors discuss the degree of coincidence between the tracing and the vaults and other issues such as functional, non-representative character of these tracings and the subtle difference s i napproach between treatises or manuscripts and actual building practice. rib vaulting, tracing, building construction, stereotomy, stonecutting.
Lewis, M. 2012 Iron lighthouses. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 23-64 Iron lighthouse construction in the 19th C is interesting, both for the logistical and engineering issues involved, and as a specialised field of prefabrication. It involves some of the major prefabricators of the period , though it does not involve mass-production. Two main forms of lighthouse can be distinguished -openwork and solid trunk- together with numerous hybrids. Experimental examples were built in Britain, after which an expoprt trade developed and Britain dominated the international market. The US imported some British lighthouses before developing its own manufacturing and exporting capabilities. By the end of the 19th C most countries that had been major importers had begun to manufacture their own, and the early 20th C the iron solid trunk lighthouse had given way entirely to the concrete version. lighthouse, beacon, prefabrication, cast iron, wrought iron, nineteenth century.
Mandel, M. and Orro, O. 2012 The marvellous reinforced concrete shells of Tallinn seaplane hangars in the context of early concerete architecture in Estonia. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 65-86 The reinforced-concrete sheell roof of the seaplane hangars at Tallinn designed and built in 1916-17 by the Danish company Christiani & Nielsen, is the most outstanding and famous early reinforced-concrete structure in Estonia, and is worthy of international recognition. The structure was outstanding in its time, due to both its geometry and the method of design calculations used. For many years the building was abandoned and almost forgotten, but after successful renovation and re-opening as a museum in 2011, it has gained much attention from a wider audience. The paper presents a detailed review of its design and construction process, and also provides some observations about its more recent history, reputation and renovation. The hangars are put into a wider context by introducing some other early Russian military concrete constructions in Estonia, as well as their place in local history of reinfo9rced concrete in general, especially other works by C&N. reinforced concrete, shell structure, military architecture, estonia, Christiani & Nielsen, 20th Century
Moe, K. 2012 Insulating North America. Construction History, Vol 27, pp 87-106 The insights and oversights evident in the development of insulation in North America have had a profound impact on the practices, pedagogies and performance of modern buildings in that country. From the earliest scientific observations to contemporary energy codes, this paper discusses the roles of the respective agents inherent in the technological momentum of modern insulation practices: architects, engineers, scientists, marketing and consumers. Central to this discussion is the undue historical preoccupation with certain modes of energy at the price of others: namely as preoccupation with conduction, as measured by the thermal resistance - or R-value- of a material (used in the USA) or its reciprocal (under certain circumstances) the conductivity of the material, or U-value (used in the UK). On account of this preoccupation, North American insulation theories and practices themselves became insulated from a range of adjacent possibilities and, at times, even from the full understanding of heat transfer in buildings. The assumptions embedded in this narrative of technological momentum continued 0 largely unquestioned- into ther 21st C as manifest in bureaucratic standards, codes, and checklists that frequently characterize the tiopic of building performance. In this way, insulation is positioned in this text as anything but a neutralizing and isolating component in a building envelope. Rather, insulation became a highly active physical, conceptual and historical agent in the habits of 20th C building design and its associated construction practices. insulation, modernism, conductivity, diffusivity, builsding performance, USA
Urbano-Gutierrez, R. 2012 Pierre, revoir tout le systeme fenetres: Corbusier and the development of glazing and air-conditioning technolkogy with the Mur Neutralisant (1928-33). Construction History, Vol 27, pp 107-129 Le Corbusier (1887-1965) became involved in the creation of a good number of artefacts throughout his career, many of them patented and developed in collaboration with the building industry. His ’mur neutralisant’ (1928) formed part of an extensive set of emergent propositions to integrate systems of artificial climate into architectural components. The invention as an early prototype of a double-skin facade which included an air-conditioning circuit to improve comfort and energy efficiency thanks to an optimised insulating performance. The system envisioned in any material, but it was the version that included a double-skin facade that became instrumental in backing up one of his most important design elements, le pan de verre (glass curtain wall). Reference to this invention repeatedly focus on a limited number of facts, providing only a partial understanding of its physical definition, performance and developmental context. In order to provide a holistic understanding of the concept of the mur neutrilisant, this paper follows its development as well as th ekey role this element played in some of his most celebrated buildings of that period. Le Corbusier, mur neutrilisant, respiration exacte, double-skin facades, air-conditioning.
Marino, G. 2012 Steel, aluminium, plastic: the ’unbearable lightness’ of architectural modernity. The Centrale d’Allocations Familiales building of the XVth Arrondissement in Pars (1953-1959). Construction History, Vol 27, pp129-152 The Caisse Centrale d’Allocations Familiales de la Region Parisiene (CCAFRP or CAF) was built between 1953 and 1959 as regional headquarters of a new post-war agency, the Central Fund for Family Allowance. Designed by French architects Raymond Lopez (1904-1966) and Michel Holley (b. 1924), it was a work of enlightened modernity, in which the architects broke new ground i terms of urban concept, structural design, engineering and specification. A spectacular steel frame supported facades of tubular aluminium sections, with translucent panels of reinforced polyester infill. The CAF would be the talk of the town , hailed by the press as a ’world first’ in its assertive, not to say militant deployment of the most innovative technical and constructional solutions. One can argue that in the CAF, technical innovation was more than just the guiding principle of the design - that it became in effect the essence of a truyly new paradigm in modern architecture Technical innovation, France, 1950s, steel frame, curtain wall, reinforced plastics, Raymond Lopez.
Heinzelmann, D., Heinzelmann, M., & Lorenz, W. 2018 The metal roof truss of the Pantheon’s portico in Rome - 152 tonnes of bronze. Construction History, Vol 33 No 2, pp 1-22 By order of Pope Urban VIII in 1625, the ancient bronze roof structure over the portico of the Pantheon in Rome was demolished and melted down for canons. So, after 1,500 years, this remarkable witness to Roman engineering, and the only known example of a completely metal structure built prior to the modern age, disappeared. An interdisciplinary research team is now reconstructing this extraordinary roof structure and how it fits into the history of the Pantheon’s construction. They have collected all the relevant sources and findings: drawings and writings of earlier architects, archival documents, describing the weight and form of the bronze removed from the roof, the only remaining rivet in the Antikensammlung Berlin and, very importantly, the survey of the Pantheon itself, which reveals traces of the original roof structure. Structural calculations, copies of original castings and tensile/shear tests verify the archaeological reconstruction. Furthermore, the rebuilding of one joint at full size enabled important conclusions to be drawn regarding the jointing method. Owing to this project, it can be presumed that Roman engineers built a 152 tonne roof structure entirely in bronze long before the first iron structures of the industrial age. Rome, Pantheon, metal truss, roof structure, bronze, rivet, Borromini, 2nd century CE
Markley, S. 2018 The ’Unseen Seen’- earth mortared stone construction, a re-illuminated historic construction technique in Britain. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 23-42 Earth mortars, and significantly, earth mortared stone construction has largely been overlooked in the archaeological and historic building record in the UK and Ireland to date. The use of earth mortared stone construction is proven in primary building accounts in England dating to the later medieval period. Wider research across Britain and Ireland has shown that it represents a vernacular building technique present from prehistory to the post-medieval period. It is noted in high and low status buildings and it is evident in all building categories such as ecclesiastical, domestic, agricultural, defensive, industrial, infrastructural and public. However, the descriptive terms used in the recording of earth mortar in published and unpublished literature in Ireland and Britain, negatively portrays it presence, indicating its poor acceptance, interpretation and recognition. This factor is persistently hindering its understanding as a durable material of construction and masking its wider acknowledgement as a historic construction technique in resulting building interpretations. This paper highlights the use of negative terminologies characterising the use of earth mortars in stone construction in Britain, which has resulted in its presence being overlooked and alternative methods of construction being prescribed. This has resulted in the consistent lack of recognition of earth mortared stone construction as a ubiquitouos and significant historic building technique. This paper demonstrates that earth, much like lime, was equally used as a mortar in stone construction through history. Earth mortar, stone construction, building technique, prehistory, medieval
Thorne, R. 2018 The rebuilding of the Crystal Palace 1851-54: Permanent and better ?. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 43-62 The rebuilding of the Crystal Palace in south London gave the team headed by Joseph Paxton the opportunity to turn a temporary exhibition building into a permanent work of architecture. Although a large number of component parts from the original building were reused, the design was re-thought for a new kind of multiple use. Structurally it was just as innovative as its predecessor, especially in the design of its arched transepts and nave. The rebuilding was fraught with difficulties and far outran the first cost estimates. Building accidents during the works showed that aspects of the design had overstepped the limits of contemporary engineering knowledge. Ultimately it was not as influential in architectural terms as some had hoped, but it advanced construction thinking in ways that had not been foreseen. Building failure, building, regulation, Crystal palace, indeterminate structures, iron roofs, prefabrication, temporary works.
Cooman, T. 2018 East meets West on the construction site. Churches in China, 1840s-1930s. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 63-84 The construction of missionary churches in China in the 1840s-1930s was in many cases the first encounter between two great and completely different building systems: the Chinese and the European. Architectural transfers of forms and technical knowledge happened on the construction sites and resulted in a creative variety of more or less hybridised buildings and styles. This original contribution to the process of modernisation of architecture and construction in China is an important, yet still unrecognised, moment, both in mission history and global architectural history. This article considers the construction site as a ’laboratory’ and focuses on the role of mediators (architects, missionary builders, Chinese middlemen, contractors, craftsmen, etc.) and the process of hybridisation or translation of terminologies, forms, techniques etc. Who were the missionary builders? What were their networks ?n How did they perceive Chinese workers ? How were Western styles transplanted to China. What were the differences between construction works in foreign concession territories, big cities, small cities and the countryside? Furthermore, the article contextualises the three phases of the evolution of church building - 1840s to 1900, 1900 to 1920, 1920s to 1930s - in relation to the transformation of the Chinese society on the path to modernity. China, christian missions, chu7rches, construyction works, cross-cultural transfer of knowledge, hybridisation, missionary architects and brother-builders, 19th C
Iori, T., and Poretti, S. 2018 The rise and decline of the Italian school of engineering. Construction History, Vol. 33 No.2, pp 85-108 This paper tells the story behind the origin, rise and sudden disappearance of the Italian school of engineering in the 20th C. It was not an academic institution, but a movement that produced an extraordinary heritage of big structures. It was a golden age: by the mid Sixties, Italian structural engineering was recognised as one of the most prestigious in the world. However, just after the economic miracle, the school suddenly ceased to exist, and it has been completely forgotten, even by historiography. Some of the leading figures are well-known - Per Luigi Nervi, Riccardo Morandi and Sergio Musmeci - but the school was the result of a more complex adventure undertaken by two generations of scientist, designers, contractors and builders. The SIXXI research (XX Century Structural Engineering: the Italian Contribution) funded by a European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant, was developed with the aim of tracing and telling that story to engineers, architects and everyone. In the paper, the story is presented as a two-voice story: the first narrative voice tells about events, individual works, construction sites, significant episodes. The second voice (in italics) connects them to the unfolding of the entire affair. The text is dedicated to the 43 victims of the collapse of the bridge over the Polcevera in Genoa on 14th August 2018. SIXXI, history of structural engineering, 20th C, Italy
Harrer, A. 2018 Simplicity and sophistication: the fan-shaped bracketing of the Temple of the Two Transcendents in Xiaohui and the Monastery of Exalted Happiness in Shuozhou (11th and 12th century). Construction History Vol.33 No.1, pp1-26 The paper explores the practical solutions provided by a highly idiosyncratic type pf bracket-block clusters known as a ’fan-shaped bracket set’ from the central Chinese province of Shanxi where timber technology and craftsmanship became a symbolic means of expression. The simplicity and sophistication in design, as exemplified by the two case study buildings, reflect an architectural tradition that is governed by rituals and rules of propriety and creates a spectrum of shapes in response to social status and genius loci. Using the principle of the ’unity of opposites’ - the non-duality of plain beauty and striking beauty - proves helpful in explaining the message hidden within the timber construction of both main halls. If stripped of their distinct local qualities, a still-popular regional construction technique with bracket-arms projecting not only at 90 degress but also at 45 degrees to the wall plane reveals itself as having evolved beyond political boundaries and written rules such that its design exhibits flexibility and and individual artistic expression. bracket set, dougong, fan-shape, angular design, carpentry, shanxi province, imperial China, rituals, adaptability
Monteiro Genin, S. 2018 Form, design and construction of ribbed vaults. Joao de Castilho’s innovations in the Jeronimos Monastery, Lisbon (1470-1552). Construction History, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp 27-48 The vaults of the Jeronimos Monastery church in Lisbon are a remarkable example of late Gothic architecture. Their span and continuous form achieve the goal of spatial unity sought after across Europe at the time. A single barrel vault covers the nave and the side aisles, while the transept is the largest built at the time. No other simialr vaults could be found (by the author ?) amongst about a thousand European vaults. This paper stems from PhD research (Genin, S. 2014) and concerns the issue of form: how was form created, acknowledging that it draws directly from principles for its design and construction. Shaping a unified vault with a single curved rib ridge line and central figure is Castilho’s (c. 1470-1552) most remarkable innovation. The span of the vault is broadened through the use of ’compound ribs’, a new typology created in this research. The author observed the methods used at the time to understand Joao de Castilho’s vault design, and put forward design and construction hypotheses for each type of vault. This method demonstrates that it was possible to build vaults without preliminary drawings, using multiple, standardised ribs. The only requirement was to follow a sequence to position the centrings, using Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon’s method. Ribbed vaults, form, design and construction, Joao de Castilho, Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon, Santa Maria de Belem church, Jeronimos Monastery, Portugal, Europe, Manueline, Late Gothic, 16th century.
Pinto, S.M.G. 2018 Behaviours and procedures used by construction agents of ordinary buildings in Portugal during the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period: rules, regulations and controls. Construction History, Vol 33 No. 1, pp 49-68 This construction agents considered are developers, builders and supervisors, that is, respectively, property owners, master masons and carpenters, and municipal and guild officials responsible for verifying and supervising the construction activity. It focuses on the builders’ hiring types; on the regulations established by supervisors for the builders’ activity in terms of price-fixing for services and building materials, and ih access to the profession; on the supervisors control during construction according to the legal norms defined by municipal ordinances and guild regulations; and on the administrative procedures established by the supervisors for the aforementioned control to be fulfilled by developers and builders. For this purpose, a set of documentary sources from several towns and institutions are used. Portugal, hiring, ordinance, municipal, rules, regulations, controls, developers, builders, supervisors, late Middle Ages, Early Modern
I. Stoyanova, I. Wouters and I. Bertels 2015 Glazed wrought-iron arcades: building technologies and spatial effects. Construction History, vol.30, no.2, pp. 45-65 Glazing, arcades, 19th century, Belgium, Italy, France
Drioueche-Djaalali, N.K., and Chabbi-Chemrouk, N. 2017 Traditional construction techniques of domes in the Kasbah of Algiers (1500-1800), Construction History, Vol. 32 No.2, pp 1-18. Examines the traditional construction techniques used in the Kasbah of Algiers and specifically those used in the Ottoman period. A computer model was used to analyse these traditional structures and identify their critical sections. The analysis demonstrates the ingenuity and intelligence of the dome builders, who were constantly searching for new, more efficient solutions. The design and construction of the domes was improved over several periods. Algerian, Algeria, Kasbah, cupolas, computer modelling, sustainable construction, traditional construction processes, knowledge transfer, Ottoman period, 16th -19th century.
Dobbels, J., Bertels, I., and Wouters, I. 2017 The general contractor, the architect and the engineer. The contractors’ path to become professional building practitioners in Belgium (1870-1960), Construction History, Vol. 32 No. 2, pp19-38. The paper analyses four general contractors’ periodicals in order to sketch the professionalisation of Belgian general contractors claiming their new position as organisers and executors of construction and their interprofessional interaction with architects and engineers. The content and context of the periodicals is described and they are placed within the broad international research context of contemporaneous construction related periodicals. It becomes clear that it took a very long time to capture the gradual shift of tasks legally. The slow adaptation of the legislative context gave rise to many conflicts about job responsibilities, but collaborative actions were undertaken by the joint arbitration committees for construction related disputes. This allows us to conclude that the main agency of resolution was conversation. General contractors, Belgium, nineteenth and twentieth centuries, professionalisation, professional periodicals interprofessional relationships.
Trout, A.R. 2017 Concrete Air Raid Shelters, 1935-1941: A study of the British cement industry’s influence on public policy. Construction History, Vol, 32 No. 2, pp83-108 The paper assesses the British cement industry’s intervention in just one aspect of the UK’s preparations for war, one that combined commercial self-interest with an impressive contribution to the collective war effort. Founded in 1935, the Cement & Concrete Association was quick to identify air raid protection as a matter of national importance in which its members could have a beneficial interest and, as the Abyssinian Crisis and Spanish Civil War unfolded, undertook a huge publicity campaign combined with concerted efforts to influence public policy. Exploring foreign precedents, the association turned to developing designs for air raid shelters, and technical training for the authorities charged with their installation. Then in 1939 the cement industry placed the resources of its Association at the government’s disposal for the duration.Engineering also took up the advocacy of concrete shelters, published guidance and reported on uptake. By 1940 Britain was better prepared for the Blitz than would have been the case had the task been left to wavering government, and these early efforts to harness the cement industry to defence purposes honed its ability to deliver aerodromes, hutted camps and Mulbery Harbours later in the war. Bombs, shelters, war, cement, concrete, association, policy, air raid precautions, ARP, Britain, Second World War. WW2
Coleman, T. 1968 The Railway Navvies The definitive non-academic study of the working lives of the labourers who constructed the railway systems of Britain, Europe and the British Empire during the 19th century. Based on thorough analysis of primary and secondary sources and extremely well-written, it explains construction practices, contract practices, safety and welfare provision, women’s lives, the ’truck’ system and the relationship between sponsors, politicians, professionals, contractors, sub-contractors, gangers, labourers and the communities they affected. It has an excellent bibliography. Britain, Canada, Australia, France, railway, navvie, navvy, labourer, contractor, sub-contractor, ganger, truck, excavator, Brassey, Peto, Brunel, Locke
Berg, T., and Berg, P. 2001 R. R. Angerstein’s Illustrated Travel Diary, 1753-1755: Industry in England and Wales from a Swedish perspective. Angerstein’s tour through Britain in the middle of the 18th century was industrial espionage undertaken to ascertain the threat of newly industrialised Britain to the established iron and steel industry of Sweden. Nonetheless, he described and made drawings of most of the industries he encountered, as well as the transport infrastructure, including those concerned with the extraction and production of construction materials. The drawings are excellent explanations of, for instance, how quarrying was undertaken, lime produced or tin smelted. This is an invaluable source for all industrial archaeologists and construction historians studying the 18th century Sweden, Britain, industry, quarrying, stone, eighteenth, machines
Ibarra-Sevilla, B 2013 The first ribbed vaults in America: craft skills & construction processes of indigenous people in the Mixtec region of Southern Mexico
’Blockker, L E & Knight, H A’ 2013 Louisiana Bousillage : The migration & Evolution of a French Building Technique in North America
’Obrien, Michael J’ 2013 Load-bearing,single wall construction from shanties to Structural Insulated Panels
’Sachs,Avigail & Stuth, Tricia A’ 2013 Innovation and Tradition:Eighty years of Housing Construction in Southern Appalachia
’Kisacky, Jeanne’. 2013 Germs are in the details: Aseptic Design and general contractors at the Lying-in Hospital of the City of New York, 1897-1901
’Campos,C F. & Dr.Penido deRezende, M.A.’ 2013 History of the use and production of cement tiles in Belo Horizonte, Brazil
’McBride, E. G. 2013 The changing role of the Architect in the United States Construction Industry 1870-1913
’Siry, Joseph M. 2013 Frank Lloyd Wright’s Innovative approach to environmental control in his buildings fo the S. C. Johnson Company
’Sprague, Tyler. S.’ 2013 "Beauty, Versatility, Prracticality" : The rise of Hyperbolic Paraboloids in post war America (1950-1962)
Burchardt, J. 2014 Danske veje på Guldkysten. Da trnasport udførtes af bærere på små stier Danish roads on the Gold Coast. When transport was on shoulders of people on small paths. The tsetse-fly killed potential draft animals. The infrastructure was selfgrown paths. 1600-1925 paths, transport, Gold Coast, Ghana,
Summerson, John 1985 What is the history of construction? Construction History, Vol 1, pp.1-2.
Tough, Alistair 1985 Sources for construction history in the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.3-5.
Hinchcliffe, T.F.M. 1985 In pursuit of construction history: historical material held by building firms. Construction History, Vol.1, pp.6-12.
Trowell, F. 1985 Speculative housing development in Leeds and the involvement of local architects in the design process 1866-1914. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.13-24.
Powell, C.G. 1985 Case studies and lost tribes: the Bristol firm of James Diment and Stephens, Bastow & Co. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.25-35.
Donnelly, T. 1985 Structure, technology and demand in the Aberdeen granite quarrying industry, 1880-1914. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.36-51.
Cooney, E.W. 1985 Innovation in the postwar British building industry: a historical view. Construction History, Vol 1, pp.52-59.
Finnimore, Brian. 1985 The A.I.R.O.H. house: industrial diversification and state building policy. Construction History, Vol.1, pp.60-71.
Coates, Christine. 1986 Sources for construction history in the library of the Trades Union Congress. Construction History, Vol.2, pp.1-2.
Calabi, Donatella. 1986 Construction history and urban sites: recent work by the Venetian school on the construction history of Venice during the Long Renaissance. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.3-12.
Yeomans, David T. 1986 Early carpenters’ manuals 1592-1820. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.13-33.
Houldsworth, H.K. 1986 Changing practices in labour relations: the Society of Master Carpenters, London 1783-99. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.34-47.
Rodger, Richard. 1986 Structural instability in the Scottish building industry 1820-80. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.48-60.
Powell, C.G. 1986 He that runs against time: life expectancy of building firms in nineteenth century Bristol. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.61-67.
Russell, Iain. 1986 Researching a company history: the McAlpine project. Construction History, Vol.2, pp.68-75.
Davison, Kate. 1986 Sources for the construction history of the Second World War. Construction History, Vol 2, pp.76-79.
I. Stoyanova 2016 ’The Roof of the Gallery Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan: Reconstructing the Original Building Technology’ pp. 277 294 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Bill, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, M. Tutton , Chr. Wall and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Further Studies in the History of Construction: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Construction History Society Roof, Gallery, Milan, Building technology, 19th century
I. Stoyanova 2017 ’Disappearing Tobacco Warehouses in Plovdiv: Building Technology and an Important Legacy’ pp. 399-414 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, T. Rosoman, M. Tutton and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Building Histories. The Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference of the Construction History Society. Tobacco, Warehouses, Plovdiv, Building technology, 20th century
I. Stoyanova 2018 ’Scaffolds for the Iron and Glass Roof o f Gallery Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan: challenges, design and evolution’ pp.369-378 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, A. Boyington, M. Driver, M. Heaton, Y. Pan, H. Schoenefeldt, M. Tutton and D. Yeomans, Studies in the History of Service and Construction. The Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the CHS Scaffolds, Iron, Glass, Vittorio Emanuele, Milan
I. Stoyanova 2019 ’Comparing Plovdiv and Greek Tobacco Warehouses: Comprehending a Historic Local Construction Type’ pp.673-688 in J. W. P. Campbell, N. Baker, M. Driver, M. Heaton, S. Kuban, M. Tutton, Chr. Wall and D. Yeomans, (Eds), Water, Doors and Buildings. Studies in the History of Construction. The Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the CHS Tobacco, Warehouses, Plovdiv, Greece, 20th century, Construction type
I. Stoyanova 2018 ’At the Intersection of Foreign Building Know How: Plovdiv in the Early Twentieth Century’ pp.1255-1262 in I. Wouters,S. Van de Voorde, I. Bertels, B. Espion, K. De Jonge, D. Zastavni, (Eds), Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories. The Proceedings of the 6th International Congress on Construction History, Vol.2. This paper suggests a new perspective on twentieth-century Plovdiv, Bulgaria, as a crossroads of foreign construction know-how. The paper discusses three notable yet insufficiently studied buildings: the railway station (1905-08), Excelsior cinema (1911-12) and tobacco warehouses (1912-28). First, using archival and historical literature, it seeks to understand the protagonists behind the design and construction of the station building. This research was augmented with onsite investigations of building materials and techniques. Next, the paper discusses the construction technology of the cinema. Then, it adds to an understanding of the local warehouse building type through a comparative analysis of several case studies. This paper unveils traces of foreign influence in all three by comparing their features with buildings described in foreign nineteenth-century technical manuals. The paper extends the little existing knowledge on the three examples and suggests the ways through which building know-how flowed into Plovdiv. Plovdiv, 20th century, Railway station, Excelsior cinema, Tobacco warehouses
Lorenz, W. and Kurrer, K.E. 2018 Construction History in Germany. In: Antonio Becchi et al: L’Histoire de la construction / Construction History. Vol. 1, pp.195-246. ABSTRACT – The recent establishment (2013) of a German association dedicated to the history of construction represents an important step. Even if the contours of the field are relatively well-defined, two differences make them unique. Germans position themselves in relation to the old theory/practice debate and four themes are dominant: structural engineering, architecture, cultural heritage preservation, and archeology. The history of construction is now established among the scientific community.
Lorenz, W., Kosykh, A., Frommelt, K. 2018 The roof of the Marble Palace in Saint-Petersburg: A structural iron ensemble from the 1770s. In: Wouters, I. et al (Ed.), Building Knowledge, Constructing Histories. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress on Construction History, pp. 809–817. It is one of the classic narratives in construction history that the first load-bearing iron frames were erected in France in the late eighteenth century. However, early iron roof structures were already built in Russia several decades before. As part of a larger study of these virtually unknown iron structures, the paper focuses on the wrought-iron roof truss of the Marble Palace in Saint-Petersburg. Covering an area of approximately 4000 m2, it was assembled in the 1770s. Designed on the basis of patterns used for traditional timber roofs, and assembled during this “Golden Age” of Russian metallurgy, the structure is a unique example testifying to the high level of the builders’ craftsmanship. Based on comprehensive investigations, supplemented with material testing and structural calculations, this paper describes and assesses the iron roof of the Marble Palace as one of the first steps in developing the “language of construction” of building with iron and steel.
Lorenz, W., Kosykh, A., Frommelt, K. 2017 Steel viaduct refurbishment inspired by the original structure and its history. In: Pelke, E.; Brühwiler, H. (eds.): Engineering History and Heritage Structures – Viewpoints and Approaches. Structural Engineering Documents 15. pp.173-178.
Lorenz, W. Luong, M.; Rohrmann, R.G.; Zabel, V. 2017 Finite Element Model Calibration of a Historic Wiegmann–Polonceau Truss Based on Experimental Modal Parameters. In: Conte, P. et al. (eds.): Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Structures. Testing, Sensing, Monitoring, and Control. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering 5. pp. 212-224.
Lorenz, W. and Heres, B. 2015 The Demidov Ironworks In Nevyansk (Ural Mountains) – Iron Structures In Building From The First Half Of The 18th Century. In: Bowen, B. et al. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Construction History, Chicago, June 3-7, 2015, vol.2, pp.505-517. ISBN Although the use of single wrought or cast iron structural elements such as tie rods, plates or columns goes back to the ancient world and became more and more common in the 17th and 18th centuries, the roof structures erected in Paris at the Théâtre Francais (1786–90) and the Salon Carré du Louvre (1789) are commonly regarded as the first examples of complete iron roof trusses in the history of construction. However, an earlier, larger application of an iron truss has been found in Russia dating from the first half of the 18th century. Considering the dominant role of Russian iron production in the 18th century, this is hardly surprising. The “golden age of Russian iron” goes back to the strategic decision of Peter the Great, at the end of the 17th century, to push forward the foundation of iron-making plants in connection with pre-industrial “works towns” in the Ural Mountains. Within a few decades, the Urals became the centre of Russian iron production, with plants often equipped with larger and better tools and machinery than in Europe. Nevyansk, 90 km north of Yekaterinburg, was the first of these new plant towns. Founded by the state in 1699 but transferred into private hands (Nikita Demidov) in 1702, Nevyansk, the “grandfather of the Ural plant towns”, became one of the most important factories – not only in the Urals, but also in Europe in terms of both the quantity and quality of the metal produced. From the structural point of view, the 58 m high “Leaning Tower” of Nevyansk and its porch are of central interest. Work on these began in 1722 and they are still standing today. Whereas the tower contains an impressive array of cast and wrought iron elements, including composite girders made of both materials, the porch is covered by a delicate roof truss built entirely of wrought iron; it spans about 9 m and reaches a height of 7.50 m. This essay analyses these iron structures in the context of the iron industry in the Urals in the 18th century. Russian iron industry, bloomery iron, cast iron, reinforced cast beam, iron roof truss
Lorenz, W. and May, R. 2012 CH.ESS: European Summer Schools on Construction History. In: Carvais, R. et al. (eds.): Nuts & Bolts of Construction History. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Construction History, Paris, July 3-7, 2012, vol.1, pp.105-112. The lack of degree programmes in construction history motivated a group of scholars to begin work on creating a European master’s programme in the field. As a first step on this path, they set up a series of European Summer Schools on Construction History (CH.ESS). Jointly organized by universities in Brussels, Cambridge, Cottbus, Madrid, Munich and Wroclaw, the first of these events took place in Cambridge in the summer of 2011. In keeping with the transdisciplinary character of construction history, the two-week course brought together students and teachers from a variety of academic disciplines. The experiences gained with CH.ESS could be of interest to any university teacher who is planning to set up a degree programme in construction history. With that in mind, the authors (members of the central CH.ESS organising team) will end this report with some remarks about the main problems that arose in trying to teach construction history in an international and multidisciplinary context. Concrete Structures; Construction History; Design Methods and Aids; Domes; Education; Heritage; Masonry Construction; Shell Structures; Static Analysis; Stone Construction; Surveying; Vaulting; Vaults
Lorenz, W. 2006 Iterative system identification for the assessment and retrofitting of a historical pre-stressed concrete bridge in Berlin. In: Lourenço, P.B. et al. (eds.): Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, New Delhi, Nov 6-8, 2006, vol.1, pp.617-624. The quality of the assessment and if necessary retrofitting of a historical structure depends primarily on the as close-to-reality identification and modelling of its static behaviour. This paper demonstrates the advantages of a hybrid approach to historic structures - the behaviour of which is often hybrid as well - using the assessment of one of the oldest pre-stressed concrete bridges of Berlin as an example. Built in 1958 with a span length of approximately 65 m, using the Freyssinet system for pre-stressing, it has been heavily used by the Berlin metro line for about 40 years. Notable cracks discovered in 2002 caused a thorough evaluation which was characterized by the combination of a comprehensive record of historical damage, a measuring programme for the determination of the state of stress of the external tendons, the development of a realistic FE model by calibration on the basis of the experimental results, excavations for the investigation of the actual condition of bearings as well as a one-year automated structural health monitoring program. As a result the bridge could be judged to be capable of bearing loads and to be suf-ficiently serviceable without the need for particular retrofitting.
Lorenz, W. 2003 History of construction: An estimable resource in the actual crisis of civil engineering? In: Huerta, S. (Ed.): Proceedings of the First International Congress on Construction History, Madrid, Jan 20-24, 2003, vol.1, pp.31-41.
Lorenz, W. 2004 The Challenge of Creativity – Learning from History? In: CEB-FIP (Ed.): Proceedings of the 5th fib (federation internationale du beton) symposium: Concrete Structures: the Challenge of Creativity. Avignon, April 26-28, 2004, pp.15-24. To master the challenges of globalisation ingenious creativity is needed more than ever before. From a historic point of view creativity is a new term in structural engineering. To gain an understanding of the specific creativity of the pioneers in reinforced and prestressed concrete construction it is important to analyse their ability, to develop and cultivate a “creative climate”. It was closely connected with some timeless virtues of engineering. Some of these virtues are discussed such as the sense for the material, simplicity, the right balance between static and intuition or the courage to dispute. An important question in this context is the question for the engineer’s responsibility. History offers different positions to this. Today, against the background of global challenges, civil engineers have to develop a new understanding of creativity, which is connected with an increased awareness of responsibility and aims at more than structural or aesthetical quality. creativity; globalisation; construction history; reinforced concrete; prestressing; simplicity; responsibility; virtue.
Lorenz, W. 1999 The Berlin Neues Museum – a microcosm of Prussian building technology against the background of beginning industrialisation. In: Brebbia, C.A.; Jäger, W. (eds.): Proceedings of the 6th International Conference Structural Studies, Repairs and Maintenance of Historical Buildings, Dresden 1999, pp.389-398.
Dr. David Yeomans 1992 The Architect and the Carpenter - The trussed roof: its history and development
Dr. David Yeomans 2000 Construction since 1900 : Material.
Dr David Yeomans with D cottam 2001 Owen Williams, (part of a series- The engineers contribution to contemporary Architecture.
Dr David Yeomans with S Emmitt 2001 Specifying Buildings :a design management perspective
Dr. David Yeomans 2003 The repair of historic timber Structures
Dr. David Yeomans 2009 How stuctures work : structural design and behaviour from bridges to buildings
Amici C.M. 2016 Architettura romana. Dal cantiere all’architetto: soluzioni concrete per idee progettuali It was standard practice in Roman times for the architect’s construction program to be taken over and given material form by the foreman and his workers, who adopted a distinctly operational process. It was a seemingly one-way process, which appeared to give a purely technical, marginal role to those in charge of the construction site; in actual fact, it was in many ways an authentic dialogue, generally in a lower key in the case of the role played by the construction site, with the building itself as the true response to the design. However, a reversal of this trend can be seen in those cases where construction requirements led to innovative technical solutions, with some special measures formulated on the ground being taken up and adopted by the architect, who would then make use of them, adapting and converting them, in later designs. Roman architecture - technical solutions - iron devices
Amici C.M. 2015 idden iron: high tech devices in roman imperial architecture, pp. 1-18, 5th INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS CONSTRUCTION HISTORY In Roman imperial times metallurgy reached a high degree of specialization and complexity. In spite of the difficulty of finding metal remains still in place, it is possible to demonstrate that iron was sometimes used in construction, although it was intentionally hidden to take advantage of its strength without revealing its presence.
Dunkeld, Malcolm 1987 Approaches to Construction History. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.3-15.
Morley, Jane 1987 Building Themes in Construction History: recent work by the Delaware Valley group. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.17-30.
Louw, H.J. 1987 The Rise of the Metal Window during the Early Industrial Period in Britain, c.1750-1830. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.31-54.
Charlton, T.M. 1987 Innovation in Structural Theory in the Nineteenth Century. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.55-60.
Cusack, Patricia. 1987 Agents of Change: Hennebique, Mouchel and ferro-concrete in Britain, 1897-1908. Construction History, Vol 3, pp.61-74.
Abram, Joseph 1987 An Unusual Organisation of Production: the building firm of the Perret Brothers, 1897-1954. Construction History, Vol. 3, pp.75-93.
Hellgardt, Michael 1987 Martin Wagner: the work of building in the era of its technical reproduction. Construction History, Vol. 3, pp.95-114.
Cooney, E.W. 1987 Innovation and Contracts in the Postwar British Building Industry. Construction History, Vol. 3, pp.115-124.
Yeomans, David T. 1988 Managing Eighteenth-Century Building. Construction History, Vol. 4, pp.3-19.
Picon, Antoine 1988 Navier and the Introduction of Suspension Bridges in France. Construction History, Vol. 4, pp.21-34.
Stratton, Michael 1988 Science and Art Closely Combined: the organisation of training in the terracotta industry, 1850-1939. Construction History, Vol. 4, pp.35-51. 1988
Bonshek, Jane 1988 The Skyscraper: a catalyst of change in the Chicago construction industries, 1882-1892. Construction History, Vol. 4, pp.53-74.
Erlich, Mark, & Goldberg, David 1988 Work not Relief: Massachusetts carpenters, craft unionism and the Great Depression. Construction History, Vol. 4, pp.75-90.
Louw, H.J. 1989 Demarcation Disputes between the English Carpenters and Joiners from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Construction History, Vol. 5, pp.3-20.
Gasparini, D.A., & Provost, Caterina 1989 Early Nineteenth Century Developments in Truss Design in Britain, France and the United States. Construction History, Vol. 5, pp.21-33.
Brooke, David 1989 The Railway Navvy – a reassessment. Construction History, Vol. 5, pp.35-45.
Spencer-Silver, Patricia 1989 George Myers, 1803-75, Stonemason, Builder, Contractor. Construction History, Vol. 5, pp.47-57.
Chrimes, Michael 1989 The Institution of Civil Engineers’ Library and Archives: a brief introduction. Construction History, Vol. 5, pp.59-65.
Guillery, Peter 1990 Building the Millwall Docks. Construction History, Vol. 6, pp.3-21
Lawrence, Jeanne Catherine 1990 Steel Frame Architecture versus the London Building Regulations: Selfridges, the Ritz and American Technology. Construction History, Vol. 6, pp.23-46.
Korvenmaa, Pekka 1990 The Finnish Wooden House Transformed: American prefabrication, war-time housing and Alvar Aalto. Construction History, Vol. 6, pp.47-61.
Kenney, Alison 1990 Sources for the History of Housing in English Provincial Towns in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Construction History, Vol. 6, pp.63-74. 1990
Schofield, John 1991 The Construction of Medieval and Tudor Houses in London. . Construction History, Vol. 7, pp.3-28.
Cooney, E.W. 1991 Eighteenth Century Britain’s Missing Sawmills: A Blessing in Disguise? Construction History, Vol. 7, pp.29-46
Louw, Hentie 1991 Window-Glass Making in Britain c.1660-c.1860 and its Architectural Impact. Construction History, Vol. 7, pp.47-68
Darnell, Victor C. 1991 The Pioneering Iron Trusses of Nathaniel Rider. Construction History, Vol. 7, pp.69-81.
Loader, Robert, and Skinner, Joan 1991 Management, Construction and Architecture: The Development of the Model Factory. Construction History, Vol. 7, pp.83-103
Locock, Martin 1992 The Development of the Building Trades in the West Midlands, 1400-1850. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.3-19
Louw, Hentie 1992 The Mechanisation of Architectural Woodwork in Britain from the Late-Eighteenth to the Early Twentieth Century, and its Practical, Social and Aesthetic Implications. Part I: The Period c.1790 to c.1860. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.21-54.
Jackson, Neil 1992 Views with a Room: taxation and the return of the bay window to the third rate speculative houses of nineteenth-century London. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.55-67
Fedorov, Sergey G. 1992 Matthew Clark and the Origins of Russian Structural Engineering 1810-40s: an introductory biography. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.69-88.
Smith, Stanley 1992 The Design of Structural Ironwork 1850-90: Education, Theory and Practice. Construction History, Vol. 8, pp.89-108
MacKenzie, A.D. 2009 Canadian Society for Civil Engineering National History Committee. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 5-6. This briefing looks at the objectives and current historical activities of the Canadian Society for Civil Engineering (CSCE) History
Gould, Michael. 2010 The innovative use of concrete by the LMS railway. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.139-145. The various railway companies in Britain and Ireland were very reluctant to use reinforced concrete in bridge decks that carried trains before about 1950. This paper looks at a remarkable exception to the rule, the railway north of Belfast that became part of the English LMS. To run it, a body called the Northern Counties Committee (NCC) was set up that operated with considerable independence. As early as 1911, the engineers of the NCC were replacing timber bridge decks with precast concrete slabs. As spans increased, they next used slabs with two attached beams and then individual T beams that became larger as their experience in the use of reinforced concrete grew. Once the use of concrete was accepted, it was used for a variety of other purposes, notably for precast buildings. In 1933, a cut-off line was constructed that included a massive viaduct at Greenisland: this was claimed as constituting the largest concrete work in Britain or Ireland to that time. The paper ends with some indications as to how this experience was brought to the parent LMS Railway Company as the Irish engineers were successively moved to London after 1930. Bridges / Concrete Structures / History
Borden, Allison H. 2010 Identifying early reinforced concrete buildings in Scotland. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. . Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.147-167. This paper reports the results of a pre-inventory, or review of documentary sources, to identify buildings constructed using proprietary reinforced concrete systems in Scotland. A number of buildings were constructed using proprietary, or patented, reinforced concrete systems in Britain between roughly 1900 and the 1920s. The majority of these buildings were designed by specialist firms with origins outside Britain. Although some of these buildings are listed, as a group they have been little studied due to their relative youth, negative perceptions of them and difficulties faced in their conservation. As development pressures mount and calls for the reuse and, in some cases, demolition of these buildings become more frequent, there is an increasing need to locate documentation to assist with their investigation. It is hoped that this pre-inventory of Scottish buildings will not only serve as a framework for gathering information about this building type, but will also serve as a model for wider conservation efforts. Concrete Structures / Conservation / History
Harper, Brian Charles Seymour. 2010 The 1862 gold fields water supply scheme: Victoria, Australia. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.169-178. A major water supply scheme to support mining at two significant alluvial gold fields in the colony of Victoria, Australia was undertaken in the 1860s. It involved a large clay core embankment dam on the Coliban river and aqueducts to serve the mining communities at Castlemaine and Sandhurst. In a new colony lacking hydrological records, estimation of the river flow and the flood characteristics presented a challenge to the designer Joseph Brady. The paper examines Brady’s approach to estimating these hydrological parameters and the reaction of other engineers in the colony to the design. The scheme was modified during construction to increase the volume to be delivered, but the higher level of supply could not be realised. Also the climatic conditions in the colony produced occasional floods with a higher crest than Brady’s estimate. Additional spillway capacity was provided during construction, but the peak volumes were such that the dam had to be held below full capacity level to prevent destruction through overtopping. Problems with the scheme brought about a programme of hydrological surveys of river catchments in the colony. Examination of 50 years of Coliban records shows the acumen of the original design engineer Joseph Brady. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history / hydrology & water resource
Hartley, Richard G. 2010 Lessons from Western Australia’s goldfields water supply scheme. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.179-187. In July 1896, the parliament of the sparsely populated colony of Western Australia voted to raise a loan of £2•5 million in London to construct a reliable water supply for its booming Coolgardie goldfield, a sum greater than the total cost of the colony’s capital works in any previous year. The scheme, prepared by the colony’s engineer-in-chief, Charles O’Connor, involved pumping water 565 km along the world’s first steel pipeline, which required 77 000 t of steel plate. This paper argues that the scheme was not one of monumental extravagance as its opponents claimed, but was one that was designed using the latest hydraulic research and ultimately was the only one that could have provided the reliability required to sustain the goldfield past its early years. Logistical problems, both in materials supply and in the construction of the pipeline largely through uninhabited country, were huge by contemporary standards. Two important technical innovations, the locking bar pipe and the mechanical pipe caulking machine, helped keep the cost of the project close to budget. The lessons learnt from the long, but eventually successful, battle against corrosion and leakage benefited hydraulic engineers around the world. History / steel structures / water supply
Drabble, Stuart. 2010 Templer & Parlby: eighteenth century contractor. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. . Vol.163, Issue EH3, pp.189-198. James Templer (1722–1782) and Thomas Parlby (1727–1802) were men of humble origin who became prominent contractors in the second half of the eighteenth century, working mainly, though not exclusively, in the royal dockyards for the Navy Board. Over 40 projects have been attributed to them or to one of their constituent organisations. England’s quest for maritime supremacy throughout the eighteenth century led to an expansion in the royal dockyards, requiring large-scale civil engineering and building projects. These were undertaken variously by dockyard workers or by external contractors or, sometimes, both working together. Templer, a house carpenter and Parlby, a stonemason, emerged from the ranks of artisans to create a large and effective workforce operating across the south of England. Between them, they acquired properties in London, Middlesex, Kent, Hampshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Devon. Although their businesses brought them wealth and social standing, their interests were not pursued by later generations of either family and their firms shrank into obscurity after 1802. Biography / history / ports, docks & harbours
Heyman, Jacques 2009 The establishment of plastic design in the UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 7-11. Tests were made on steel-framed buildings under construction in London in the early 1930s and they revealed startling discrepancies between the values of stresses calculated by conventional elastic designers and those actually measured. It became apparent that very small defects in manufacture of construction could have a great influence on the actual state of a structure; moreover, these defects could not, by their nature, be predicted. It was at this time, however, that results were published on the collapse behaviour of steel structures – initial defects were ‘wiped out’ by plastic deformation, and the final collapse loads appeared to be independent of the defects. The ‘plastic’ method was investigated in the UK (in Bristol and Cambridge) from 1936 onwards, and by 1948 a clause was inserted into the relevant British standard permitting plastic design in steel. Further advances in the second half of the 20th century revealed the theoretical basis for simple plastic design. Elastic analysis is necessary for the calculation of deflexions and the investigation of stability, but the examination of ‘plastic’ strength uses only the equilibrium equations and knowledge of the yield stress of the material. The plastic design method could be renamed that of ‘static equilibrium‘, and it is applicable to structures oof reinforced concrete, of masonry, and indeed of any ductile material that a designer would consider safe in practice. Design Methods & Aids / History / Structural Frameworks
Fahlbusch, Henning 2009 Early dams. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 13-18. The Jawa dam in northern Jordan is often regarded as the oldest known dam in the world. The structure and the famous Sadd el Kafara in Egypt are both well known. However, it seems logical that these large dams had forerunners with an unknown chain of development. Research works over the last five years have revealed small dams in southern Jordan that can be dated to the seventh millennium BC. The dams of the Neolithic and early Bronze Age were designed just to withstand water pressure – not to prevent seepage. A layer of relatively impermeable soil used for sealing was observed for the first time at Hittite dams at Sarissa and Hattusa. A pavement of large stones on the downstream face permitted some defence against water overflowing the dam. These dams therefore represent a significant step in the development of modern dams. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history
Wermiel, Sara E. 2009 Introduction of steel columns in US buildings, 1862-1920. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 19-27. This paper traces the early history of steel columns in US buildings including the development of steel sections and examples of buildings in which they were used. A common misconception is addressed: that the frames of early skeleton-frame buildings in the USA were made entirely of steel. In fact, some of the first skeleton frames contained no steel at all. In the 1890s, the era of US pioneer skyscrapers, the part of a building’s frame least likely to be made of steel was the columns. At this time, steel columns had to be fabricated from various rolled shapes and the extra labour involved was a factor in their high cost. There were many forms of steel columns and professional opinion differed regarding which sections offered the most strength and best connections at the least cost. Many contingent factors encouraged designers to use steel columns or choose alternatives, or to select one section rather than another. A key point is that structural steel was not a precondition for the development of skeleton-frame construction. Moreover, the diverse ways designers used materials show how experimental frame design was in the early days of skeleton-frame construction. Eventually, by the second decade of the decade of the twentieth century, all-steel frames became the norm for tall buildings. Buildings, structures & design / columns
Milner, Philip 1992 The Engineering of the Port of Melbourne. Sixth National Conference on Engineering Heritage (5-7 October 1992) Hobart, Tas. Institution of Engineers, Australia, Tasmania Division, 1992: 29-34. National conference publication; no. 92/17. The development of the port of Melbourne is described from its initial establishment along the River Yarra, and at Port Melbourne and Williamstown; together with an analysis of the conflict between Sir John Coode and Joseph Brady with respect to the location and method of construction of Victoria Dock, its subsequent operation and adaptation in response to changes both in the volume of general cargo handled and in transport technology, and the causes of its demise. A study of comparable port facilities in other parts of the world suggests that Victoria Dock is now the largest extant nineteenth century tidal basin in the world, which also still retains several ’crucial elements in the development of the traditional (non-containerized) port: linear wharfage and multi-berth cargo handling facilities; and illustrates both a significant stage in the technology of cargo handling and a dockland culture which, with the introduction of containerization, has all but disappeared. seaport development / dock design, construction & operation / Melbourne / history
Buchanan, Robert Angus, et al. 2009 Case studies in engineering training and professional education. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 29-37. This project springs from a discussion among members of a history of technology seminar at the University of Bath. It reflects a widespread apprehension that all is not well with our national training programmes for engineers and other professional groups. British practice has traditionally paid particular attention to the skills that can be acquired by performing tasks under the guidance of established experts. However, it is now generally recognised that such an apprenticeship system is not adequate to meet the modern demands for highly specialised technical skills, which, moreover, are constantly changing in response to new knowledge. It has become necessary to rely on tuition in universities and specialist technical institutions, although this requires supplementation by personal application to reading, field-work, model-making and technical drawing. The resulting amalgam of acquired and taught crafts with a high level of personal commitment is what we have come to expect of our experts. While recognising that it is not possible to generalise precisely from a small number of case studies, these studies nevertheless attempt to assess the value of different elements in our professional training through a comparison of four cases. The emphasis is on engineering because this represents the background of most members of the group, and also because engineering training procedures have been the subject of particular recent anxiety. But other experiences provide a wider context in which the strengths and weaknesses of engineering education and training can be regarded. Education & training / history
Bridle, Ron J., and Sims, Frank A. 2009 The effect of bridge failures on UK technical policy and practice. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 39-49. The first part of this paper sets the scene for the growth of the road programme in the UK since 1950 and new additions to the existing stock of bridges. The second part describes the events that gave concern for the integrity of these bridges and the attention given to the policy and inspection procedures to safeguard the nation’s existing stock. Tables describing the bridge stock, the principal factors influencing maintenance expenditure and the principal tasks are provided, together with concluding observations and acknowledgement of the great efforts of the bridge engineering community over the half-century covered. bridges / dangers & hazards / failures
Cox, Ronald C. 2009 Telford in Ireland: work, opinions and influence. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH1, pp. 51-60. The paper presents a review of Telford’s work in Ireland, in particular the Howth Road, the final link in the plan to improve communication between London and Dublin. Telford’s influence on Irish dock and harbour construction is also discussed, as well as his role in the planning of the Ulster Canal. history / ports docks & harbours / roads & highways
Taylor,Andrew, Plant,Chris & Dickerson,James 2009 Wellington Street Swing Bridge, Hull, UK. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 67-79. The growth of Hull as a British port at the time of William Wilberforce (1759-1833) saw the construction of docks and dock bridges similar to those in London, Plymouth and Liverpool. These structures now form an essential part of Britain’s heritage and are protected under listed buildings and conservation regulations. For several years, Hull City Council has been developing a conservation policy for its nine listed bridges and a comprehensive historical audit was required. This paper looks into the history of Hull Docks and the development of cast-iron swing bridges between 1800 and 1850. The paper describes the design of Hull’s cast-iron Wellington Street Swing Bridge as part of a scheme for restoration of the bridge to working order. When the bridge was originally built, it would have been required to carry horse-drawn traffic that would probably have weighed no more than 5 t in total and carried commodities at walking pace, thus minimising the impact factor. The original bridge design may have been based on a three-pinned arch, although this is just speculation. Bridges /conservation / ports, docks & harbours
Neville, Adam 2009 History of high-alumina cement. Part 1: Problems and the Stone report. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 81-91. The paper is published in two parts. Part 1 presents a lead-up to the Stone Committee. A brief description of high-alumina cement (HAC) is given andthe problems with its use in structures are outlined. The body of the Stone Committee report is then dealt with and some more widely applicable conclusions of the report are discussed. Part 2 discusses the background to HAC problems in light of the Stone Committee report as well as the present day situation. Concrete Structures / Failures / History
Neville, Adam 2009 History of high-alumina cement. Part 2: Background to issues. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 93-101. Part 1 of this paper dealt with the Stone Committee Report as a solution to the problem of the failure of high-alumina cement (HAC) Concrete in structures. This part discusses the reasons why the problems arose: in a nutshell, ignorance of the behaviour of HAC, and relentless pressure to sell HAC as a problem-free material. Concrete Structures / Failures / History
Brown, David Henthorn 2009 Canal reservoirs in Great Britain. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 103-110. This paper considers the development of canal reservoirs in Great Britain from a historical perspective and reflects how they developed in the light of changing requirements and engineering advances. Ninety-two reservoirs, with an average of 188 years, remain the responsibility of British Waterways. There are many more which have found other uses or been discontinued. Dams, barrages & reservoirs / history / waterways & canals
Bartlett, F.Michael, et al. 2009 1870s innovation in London Canada’s Blackfriars Bridge. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Volume 162, Issue EH2, pp. 111-117. Blackfriars Bridge in London, Ontario, Canada is a wrought-iron bowstring-arch-truss bridge fabricated by the Wrought Iron Bridge Company of Canton, Ohio, and erected in 1875. Although typical of the 19km of wrought-iron bowstrings constructed by the company in this period, the bridge is one of the first to feature a ‘double-panel’ web diagonal arrangement that was patented in the USA one year after the bridge was constructed. Considering the state of structural engineering knowledge in the 1870s, this paper investigates whether the structural response of the double-panel diagonal could have been correctly analysed by the original designers or whether the bridge may have been erected as a prototype to validate the innovative feature. Design loads are specified in the company’s 1874 book of designs that depend on whether the bridge is located in the country, a town, a second-class city or a first-clas city. The truss statistically indeterminate to the thirteenth degree, can be manually analysed neglecting slender web diagonals in compression if the participation of vertical members above the double-diagonals is ignored. The patent highlights the structural contribution of these members, however, and because their participation can only be assessed using modern computer analyses, Blackfriars Bridge may have been built as a prototype to validate the double-panel design feature Bridges / Design Methods & Aids / History
Sutherland, H.B. 1999 Professor William John Macquorn Rankine. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers – Civil Engineering. Volume 132, Issue 4, pp. 181-187. Macquorn Rankine is probably best known among civil engineers for his 1857 theory on earth pressure, which is still a prominent feature in today’s geotechnical textbooks. But he was also one of the founding fathers of thermodynamics, a world authority on ship design, a fellow of the Royal Society and instigator of the first engineering degree course at a British university. On top of this he was a soldier, a musician and a poet. Nevertheless after fifteen years as an associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, he was apparently not considered suitable for promotion to member and promptly resigned. This paper reviews his enormous contribution to the advancement of engineering and science and, more importantly, to that of society. Glasgow University / Biography / Engineering / Earth Pressure /Geotechnics / Thermodynamics / Ships / Design / Engineers / Education / Courses / Degrees / Science /Society / History
Jones, Stephen K. 2009 Briefing: an engineering historian’s heritage, Rhys Jenkins (1859–1953) Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.123-124. Rhys Jenkins was a pioneer in the study of the history of engineering and technology and one of the founder members of the Newcomen Society, the oldest learned society in the world devoted to the study of the engineering and technology history. This is a brief account of Rhys Jenkins’ early life and Welsh background, which influenced his later interest in engineering history. Biography / History
Bailey, Michael R 2009 Briefing: 150th anniversary of Robert Stephenson’s death. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Engineering History and Heritage. Vol.162, Issue EH3, pp.125-126. Robert Stephenson is one of only two engineers – the other being Thomas Telford – to be buried in Westminster Abbey, reflecting the deep respect with which both were held. Although his reputation is maintained among discerning students of engineering history, Stephenson is less well known today among the population at large, this provides an opportunity to promote further knowledge of his life and career. Biography / History
System design and development by
Dennis McDermott a Freelance Access Developer at Bespoke Software Development
Version 1.1
Date 05/07/2020